CEA Plumbing Systems
Two (2) Main Plumbing Systems • Water Supply System • DWV: Drain, Waste and Vent System
Water Supply System • Provides clean, potable water to indoor fixtures and appliances (sinks, lavatories, bath/showers, toilets. • Potable – fit for human consumption. • Provides supply to water heater and outdoor hose bibs. • Two (2) main sources for water supply:
Water Supply System Sources Surface Water Supply: Lakes, rivers & reservoirs provide water source. Example: Public water systems
Water Supply Systems Public water systems: Public water supply systems use pumps to move the water from its source (lake, river, reservoir) to a treatment plant where it is filtered, cleaned and purified.
Water Supply Systems Public Water Systems: Once the water is purified, it is delivered to homes and businesses through large pipes called water “mains”. New homes and businesses can tap into the water main without disrupting service to existing structures.
Water Supply System Sources Well water supply: Underground watertable provides water. Example: Private homes, especially in rural areas.
Water Supply System Sources Well Water Supply: • To tap into the water table (underground), a well must be established. Wells can be bored, drilled, dug or driven. • Pumps pull water from the well to the house/structure.
Water Supply System Piping • Hot and cold water supply system piping consists of ½”diameter pipe for most homes. • Supply piping can be made from copper or plastic.
Copper Supply Piping • Type K – heaviest, color code green,for underground & interior use. • Type L – next heaviest, color code blue,for above-ground service only. • Type M – thinner than “L”, color code red,for above-ground supply, and DWV. • Type DWV – lightest, color code yellow, for above-ground drain, waste & vents.
Copper Supply Piping • Copper pipe can be cut with a tubingcutter. Most tube cutters have an attached de-burring tool, which removes metal fragments and splinters.
Copper Supply Piping • Copper piping and fittings are often joined by “sweating” (soldering) pipes and fittings together.
Copper Supply Piping • Some fittings have male or female threads to allow for non-sweat connections.
Copper Supply Piping • When connecting copper pipe and adapters with threaded fittings, threads must be sealed to prevent leaks!
Copper Supply Piping • This is done with teflon tape, thread sealant (pipe dope) or gaskets & washers. Teflon tape applied to pipe thread
Copper Supply Piping Common pipe fittings: • Couplings & Unions • Elbows (45o and 90o) • Tees • Adapters • Reducers
Plastic Supply Piping Plastic piping can be made from: • PVC - polyvinyl chloride • CPVC – chlorinated polyvinyl chloride • ABS – acrylonitrile butadiene styrene • Other materials include polyethylene (PE), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) and styrene rubber (SR).
Plastic Supply Piping - PVC • used primarily for water distribution & DWV systems. Color: white • high impact strength & corrosion resistant. • available in diameters from 1 ¼” to 12” • pressure rated to 100 psi. • temperature rated to 73oF (NOT suitable for hot water piping!)
Plastic Supply Piping - CPVC • used primarily for supply & DWV systems. • color: light tan • high strength & chemical resistant. • pressure rated to 100 psi. • temperature rated to 180oF (suitable for hot water piping!)
Plastic Supply Piping - ABS • used primarily for DWV systems. • DWV grade and service grade available. • available in diameters from 1 ¼” to 12” • color: black
Plastic Supply Piping Common pipe fittings: • Couplings & Unions • Elbows (45o and 90o) • Tees • Adapters • Reducers
Plastic Supply Piping • Plastic pipe and fittings are joined by using special cleaning agents and glues. • The correct glue must be selected for the type of pipe used! • Both surfaces to be joined must be cleaned before gluing!
Plastic Supply Piping • When gluing, glue is applied to both surfaces of pipe! • After joining pieces, twist slightly and hold for 30-60 seconds for glue to set. • Plastic pipe can be cut with a hacksaw or bandsaw.
Drain, Waste, Vent Systems • Drain & waste systems: provide for the removal of liquid and solid waste, and contaminated water. • Vent system: provides necessary ventilation to prevent siphoning and the back-up of sewer gasses, maintains atmospheric pressure.
Drain, Waste, Vent Systems • Drain & waste systems use copper, plastic and cast iron pipe material.
Drain, Waste, Vent Systems • Traps are used with fixtures (sinks, tubs, showers and toilets) in the drain line to prevent siphoning and the back up of sewer gasses into the building.
Drain, Waste, Vent Systems Trap construction • Traps can be made from plastic (PVC or ABS) • Traps can be made from metal (usually brass or copper). • Traps are designed to “trap” water in the bend, preventing sewer gas from entering the structure.
Drain, Waste, Vent Systems Types of traps: • P- traps: used mostly with sinks & lavatories. They usually exit through a wall connection. • S- traps: often used with sinks. They usually exit through the floor (or cabinet bottom). • Drum (tube) traps: used with tubs and showers. Have built in “clean-outs.”
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Plumbing fixtures can be made from several different materials: • Vitreous china • Steel, coated with porcelain • Cast iron, coated with porcelain • Stainless steel • Fiberglass • Acrylic plastic
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Vitreous china: toilets & lavatories
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Steel, coated with porcelain: tubs & sinks
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Cast iron, coated with porcelain: tubs & kitchen sinks
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Stainless steel: kitchen sinks
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Fiberglass/Acrylic: showers, sinks & tubs
Plumbing Fixtures - Materials Acrylic plastic sinks, lavatories, & toilets
Sinks & Lavatories Sinks are used for food preparation and/or dishwashing. Lavatories are used for hand & face washing.
Sinks & Lavatories There are five (5) main types of sinks/lavatories:
Sinks & Lavatories One piece molded sink
Sinks & Lavatories Ledge (wall-mount) type
Sinks & Lavatories Self-rimming type
Sinks & Lavatories Built-in with metal rim.
Sinks & Lavatories Pedestal type
Plumbing Fixtures - Bathtubs Materials used for tub construction: • Enameled cast iron • Enameled steel • Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
Plumbing Fixtures - Bathtubs Common tub dimensions (length): • 54” • 60” • 66”
Plumbing Fixtures - Showers Materials used for shower construction: • Glazed tile • Enameled steel • Fiberglass-reinforced plastic Showers can be built-in or freestanding units.
Plumbing Fixtures - Showers Common shower dimensions (length x width): • 30” x 30” • 36” x 36” • 36” x 48” Showers can have storage areas (ledges) and/or seats and foot rests built in.
Plumbing Fixtures - Toilets Materials used for toilet construction: • Vitreous china • Reinforced plastic Toilets are also called water closets.
Plumbing Fixtures - Toilets • Most toilets are made from vitreous china. • Vitreous: glass-like surface and/or made from glass. • Vitreous china toilets are made from as many as 13 different pieces, molded into one unit.
Rough Plumbing • Before finish plumbing can be done, planning and “roughing-in” must be done. • This includes installing the primary “stack,” running supply pipes, drain lines & vents. • It also includes plumbing water heaters, water treatment systems and watermeters.
Finish Plumbing • The stage of plumbing that that most people are familiar with is referred to as finishplumbing. • This is the stage where fixtures and final supply lines & drains are installed.