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Patterns of Inheritance

Patterns of Inheritance

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Patterns of Inheritance

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  1. Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 12

  2. Early Ideas of Heredity Gregor Mendel -chose to study pea plants because: 1. other research showed that pea hybrids could be produced 2. many pea varieties were available 3. peas are small plants and easy to grow 4. peas can self-fertilize or be cross-fertilized 5. Produce many “babies”(seeds) FAST!

  3. Monohybrid Crosses Monohybrid cross: a cross to study only 2 variations of a single trait Mendel produced true-breeding pea strains for 7 different traits -each trait had 2 alternate forms (variations) -Mendel cross-fertilized the 2 true-breeding strains for each trait

  4. Monohybrid Crosses F1 generation (1st filial generation): offspring produced by crossing 2 opposite (Tall crossed with short) pure-bred strains All F1 plants resembled only 1 parent -no plants with intermediate forms between the 2 parents were produced (Example: no medium heights)

  5. Monohybrid Crosses F2 generation: offspring resulting from the self-fertilization of F1 plants F2 plants exhibited both forms of the trait: ¾ plants with the dominant form ¼ plant with the recessive form Mendel discovered the ratio is actually: 1 pure-bred dominant plant 2 hybrid dominant plants 1 pure-bred recessive plant Ratio = 3 : 1.

  6. Monohybrid Crosses dominant: the form of each trait expressed in the F1 plants (Capital Letters ) recessive: the form of the trait not seen in the F1 plants (Small-case Letters)

  7. Monohybrid Crosses - definitions gene: information for a trait passed from parent to offspring alleles: alternate forms of a gene homozygous: having 2 of the same allele (TT – tt – RR – rr – BB – bb) heterozygous: having 2 different alleles (Tt – Rr – Bb)

  8. Monohybrid Crosses - definitions genotype: total set of alleles of an individual (Genes - letters) PP = homozygous dominant Pp = heterozygous pp = homozygous recessive phenotype: outward appearance of an individual (Physical)

  9. Monohybrid Crosses – Mendel’s conclusions Principle of Segregation: Two alleles (homologous chromosomes) separate during gamete (Sperm or Egg) formation Meiosis Proves Mendel was correct!

  10. Monohybrid Crosses – Mendel’s conclusions Principle of Independent Assortment: the alleles of each gene divide into gametes independently of each other Mendel was mostly right about this (show on board)

  11. Probability – Predicting Results Product Rule: the probability of 2 independent events occurring is the PRODUCT of their individual probabilities. Rr Yy x RrYy, probability of obtaining rr yy offspring is: probability of rr = ¼ probability of yy = ¼ probability of rr yy = ¼ x ¼ =1/16

  12. Punnett Squares • Punnett squares can be used to predict the outcome of a genetic cross

  13. Pedigree analysis is used to track inheritance patterns in families.

  14. Testcross Testcross: a cross used to determine the genotype of an individual with dominant phenotype -cross the individual with unknown genotype (e.g. P_) with a homozygous recessive (pp) -the phenotypic ratios of offspring are different, depending on the genotype of the unknown parent

  15. Dihybrid Crosses Dihybrid cross: examination of 2 separate traits in a single cross -for example: RR YY x rryy The F1 generation of a dihybrid cross (RrYy) shows only the dominant phenotypes for each trait.

  16. Dihybrid Crosses The F2 generation shows all four possible phenotypes in a set ratio: 9 : 3 : 3 : 1

  17. Extensions to Mendel Mendel’s model of inheritance assumes that: -each trait is controlled by a single gene -each gene has only 2 alleles -there is a clear dominant-recessive relationship between the alleles Many genes do not meet these criteria!

  18. Extensions to Mendel (1) Polygenic inheritance- multiple genes control the phenotype of a trait. These traits show continuous variation Examples: Human height, Eyecolor and Skin Color - Lab Retrievers

  19. Extensions to Mendel (2) Incomplete dominance: the heterozygote is intermediate in phenotype between the 2 homozygotes.

  20. Red X white 4/4 pink

  21. Extensions to Mendel (3) Codominance: the heterozygote shows some aspect of the phenotypes of both homozygotes. (4) Multiple alleles: more than 2 possible alleles for a gene

  22. P generation F1 generation F1 generation F2 generation

  23. Multiple alleles: gene with more than 2 possible alleles • Each individual inherits only 2 • Examples: Blood types (A B o) + Rabbit Coats (Cchh c )