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The French Revolution

The French Revolution

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The French Revolution

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  1. The French Revolution 1789

  2. Absolute Monarchies • All kingdoms in Europe had absolute monarchies (France, Russia, Spain, Austria, Prussia, etc.) EXCEPT: • Britain • The Netherlands

  3. French King Louis XVI & his Austrian wife Marie Antoinette

  4. Louis XVI spent money on: • Unsuccessful wars to enlarge France’s territory and • Versailles …he and his father and grandfather had made France wealthy, but they spent all France’s money and emptied the treasury!

  5. Versailles

  6. The three estates

  7. First Estate: the Catholic Clergy • less than 1% pop. • Paid no taxes (“free gift” from church) • Owned 10% of land

  8. Second Estate: • Landowning nobles (“duke” or “baron”) • Paid no taxes • Owned 20% land

  9. Third Estate: • Bourgeoisie – “Middle class” lawyers, doctors, bankers, manufacturers, shop keepers • Sans – coulottes: urban poor • Peasant farmers • 98% population • Owned 70% land

  10. Third Estate Taxes: • ½ income to gov’t • Royal taxes to king’s agent • Feudal dues to nobles • Corvee (work tax) • Tithes to catholic church

  11. Socio-Economic Data, 1789

  12. The French Urban Poor

  13. Financial Problemsin France, 1789 • Urban Commoner’sBudget: • Food 80% • Rent 25% • Tithe 10% • Taxes 35% • Clothing 20% • TOTAL 170% • King’s Budget: • Interest 50% • Army 25% • Versailles 25% • Coronation 10% • Loans 25% • Admin. 25% • TOTAL 160%

  14. French Budget, 1774

  15. American Revolution: 1776 - 1783 • Louis XVI sent troops & money to help American Revolutionaries • Wanted to strike a blow against England • England was France’s biggest rival in Europe

  16. Why did French citizens feel the need to revolt? • Disgruntled because of unfair tax situation • Most 3rd Estate citizens lived mainly on bread • 1788 poor grain harvest – price of bread doubled; many starved; Louis XVI didn’t do anything about it • Spring 1788 – starved all winter & gave ½ income to gov’t

  17. Why did French citizens feel the need to revolt? • Louis XVI was a weak ruler • Borrowed money to finance his wars • Needed/ wanted to tax people more • American Revolutionaries had successfully broken away from an unfair leader who taxed them without giving them representation in government • French citizens were INSPIRED!!!

  18. Why did Louis XVI need money & tax French citizens? • War effort in America • Expand French territory in Europe • Called Estates – General together to approve a new tax • Dangerous move because they’d call for new laws to be written

  19. The Estates-General = The French Legislature King Louis XVI hadn’t called the Estates-General to meet for 175 years because he didn’t want them to pass any laws!

  20. When the king finally called the Estates-General together, the 3rd estate did something drastic…

  21. Rigged Legislative System • 1st Estate = 1 Vote • 2nd Estate = 1 Vote • 1&2 Always voted together • 591 members total • 3rd Estate = 1 Vote • 610 members • Called for a change in voting system– led to the TENNIS COURT OATH

  22. As soon as the Estates- General began to meet they declared themselves the new Legislature of France and called themselves the National Assembly. Louis XVI responded by sending in Swiss troops to break up the National Assembly. Meanwhile there were bread riots in the streets of Paris.

  23. The tennis court oath

  24. Tennis Court Oath Signatures

  25. Bastille: Fortress/ Prison for political prisoners

  26. A French mob stormed the Bastille to get weapons to defend the National Assembly

  27. The Great Fear • Rumors that the king’s troops were going to take revenge on the commoners for the storming of the Bastille. • Instead, commoners went on a rampage, ransacking nobles’ manors and drove the king and queen from Versailles into Paris.

  28. As a result, almost everyone died.Bastille Day/ French Independence Day = July 14th

  29. Changes made by the National Assembly August 1789 - 1791 • Voted to end serfdom/ Feudalism & made all citizens equal under the law • Freedom of speech • Freedom of religion

  30. Changes made by the National Assembly August 1789 - 1791 • Nobles gave up exclusive hunting rights • Nobles gave up tradition of paying no taxes • Nobles gave up right to collect feudal dues

  31. Changes made by the National Assembly August 1789 - 1791 • Elected assembly to make all laws = Legislative Assembly • Abolished provinces & created 83 “departments” • Set up a constitutional monarchy

  32. “liberté,equalité,fraternité”=liberty,equality,brotherhoodcolors arered, whiteand blue

  33. Declarationof theRightsof Man1789

  34. Declaration of the Rights of Man First Article – “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions can be founded only on the common utility.”

  35. Declaration of the Rights of Man • “the aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural rights of man.” • “…These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”

  36. DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN WAS THE FIRST ACT OF THE NEW LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, MAKING ALL PEOPLE EQUAL UNDER THE LAW. It was their first step towards a new constitution.

  37. Declaration of the Rights of Woman, a letter written by Olympe de Gouges to Queen Marie Antoinette

  38. Vindication of the Rights of Womanby Mary Wollstonecraft

  39. The Legislature invents new terms! Left, Right and Moderate Have you ever heard these terms?...wondered what they mean?...

  40. Within the Context of the French Revolution: • Left = wanted more radical changes (a republic) • Right = conservatives opposed to more change in government; wanted a limited monarchy • Moderate = middle of the road

  41. Within the context of today’s politics: • Left = more gov’t control of social and economic programs • Right = less gov’t control of social and economic programs • Moderate = middle of the road

  42. The French Revolution Part 2

  43. Louis XVI Makes A Mistake… • Tried to flee w/ Marie Antoinette to Austrian Netherlands • Postmaster recognized Louis at the border from his picture on the new French coins • Louis & Marie were returned to Paris • This discredited the French Monarchy • King and Queen taken as prisoners by the French mob

  44. Angry Parisians storm the Palace

  45. National Convention elected in 1792 • Legislative Assembly resigned • National Convention declared a republic • Made king and queen “private citizens” • Louis XVI tried for treason • Executed by guillotine January 21, 1793

  46. Execution of King Louis XVI, 1792

  47. Robespierre…a leader in crisis1793-94 • Radical leader of “Committee for Public Safety” • Reign of Terror – years during his control of France • Tried to wipe out all traces of France’s monarchy & nobility

  48. “liberté,equalité,fraternité”=liberty,equality,brotherhoodcolors arered, whiteand blue

  49. Guillotine – “Death to the Traitors!” • Executed Marie Antoinette & other leaders of the French Republic • More than 40,000 killed under Robespierre

  50. guillotine