Food-grade Dye Injection: A Novel Alerting Mechanism for Consumers Warning of Drinking Water Contamination - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Food-grade Dye Injection: A Novel Alerting Mechanism for Consumers Warning of Drinking Water Contamination

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Food-grade Dye Injection: A Novel Alerting Mechanism for Consumers Warning of Drinking Water Contamination

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  1. Food-grade Dye Injection:A Novel Alerting Mechanism for Consumers Warning ofDrinking Water Contamination Albuquerque, NM May 23, 2012

  2. Introduction: Water Distribution Systems STAGE 1: Water Sources: Ground or Surface STAGE 4: Sewage and Sanitization STAGE 3: Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural Use STAGE 2: Treatment Process

  3. Introduction: Contamination Events Historical Evidence Terrorism is Real Federal Requirement Immature Knowledge

  4. Introduction: Emergency Management • Risk Assessment Event

  5. Objectives & Existing Strategies

  6. Comparison of Strategies

  7. Comparison of Strategies

  8. Food-grade Dye Injection U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2004): “A potentially useful measure may be the point injection of food-grade colorants or dyes into the distribution system. The injection of the dye may discourage public consumption of the potentially contaminated water and act as a second layer of protection in addition to public notification.” But no instructions and guidelines!

  9. Food-grade Dye Injection • Objectives • Minimize public health impacts • Minimize unnecessary public alert • Decisions: • Where to inject dye? • How much dye? • How long? B A Extent of Public Alert Health Impacts

  10. Simulation-Optimization Framework

  11. Virtual City of “Mesopolis” Airport Residential (mid density) University Campus Downtown Residential (mid density) Industry 8 miles Residential (low density) Naval Base Residential (low density)

  12. Virtual City of “Mesopolis” Diameter (in) 10 14 24 36

  13. Trade-off Alerting Protocols

  14. Minimum-impact Alerting Protocol Diameter (in) 10 14 24 36 mass (kg)|duration (hour) 120|2 115|1 95|1

  15. Health Impacts Distribution Dye concentration Ingested contaminant mass per capita

  16. Mitigation of Impacts(6-hour delay) Original Impact Values Reduced Impact Values

  17. Execution Costs • Analysis is performed for extreme-impact contamination event: Main treatment plant polluted  Whole city contaminated • Following cost estimates: • Dye injector cost: $10,000 / unit (trailer & pump) • Dye amount cost: $180 / kg (Red 40 dye)

  18. Execution Costs # of dye boosters 300K 200K # of people alerted 100K Total ingested mass of contaminant

  19. Conclusions • Efficient • Cost-effective • Quick to execute • No interruption of fire protection, etc. Future work is needed to • provide comprehensive response plans • facilitate implementation • quantify public behavior • educate public

  20. Acknowledgement This research is in part supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-0927739 & CMS-0600448. Student Technical Paper Competition Committee and Sponsors Dr. Kathleen Leonard