Instructional Delivery, and Classroom Culture Academy of Pacesetting States July 19-24, 2009 Princeton, New Jersey
Next Steps – Report Give a summary of your team’s response to the Next Steps in --- Effective Teaming Instructional Planning
Day 2 Objectives • Review the concepts of motivation, metacognition, and attribution as applied in a classroom • Observe and interact through an explicit planning framework for whole-class direct instruction • Apply the Mega System unit planning process to classroom culture • Explore classroom management techniques for Work Time
Warm-up… What do the road signs tell you…? GO STOP YIELD DETOUR PROCEED WITH CAUTION SLIPPERY WHEN…
Classroom Culture: The Big Picture A well-orchestrated classroom is the result of careful planning. Whole Class Instruction is focused, interactive and efficient. Work Time engages all students in standards-aligned and differentiated learning activities.
Indicators Teacher-Directed Instruction IIIA08-11 IIIA13-20 Teacher-Student Interaction IIIA21 IIIA25-27 6
Modeling Whole Class Instruction 7 Think (20%): State the lesson, and what is to be learned, Stimulate interest by compelling students to think about the topic, and connect to prior knowledge. Indicators: #IIIA09-10
Lesson:Motivation and Metacognition Wanting to Learn and Knowing How
Lesson Objectives Understand motivation and what motivates students to learn. Know what a teacher can do to enhance students’ motivation to learn. Understand metacognition. Know what a teacher can do to enhance students’ metacognitive abilities. 9
What is a Motive? “Motive” is the word we use to explain why someone does what he or she does. Motivation is measured by: Willingness to attempt. Persistence. 10
What are Your Motives for Teaching? What motivated you to become a teacher? 2. What motivates you to persist in teaching? 11
What Motivates a Student to Learn? As much as 25% of the differences between students in their learning outcomes can be explained by differences in motivation. And there is a circular effect: The school and home contribute to the student’s motivation to learn. 12
Modeling Whole Class Instruction 13 Know (60%): Key Facts, concepts and skills related to the objectives for the lesson are taught. Graphic organizers, explaining, modeling, and demonstrating are used by the teacher. Indicators: #IIIA11-16
Theories of Motivation: Short Course Expectancy Theory Expectation of success (avoidance of failure) and value of task Attribution Theory Ability, Effort, Luck, Task difficulty Goal Theory Achievement (accomplishment and performance), social (status, intimacy, responsibility), work-avoidance 14
Expectancy and Value Table 2: Students’ Strategies for Responding to Classroom Activities as Related to Their Expectancy and Value Perceptions (Brophy) 15
Attribution Constructive attribution: Effort, strategies applied, available information. “I need to try harder, try a different approach, ask questions.” Destructive attribution: Lack of ability. “I’m just not smart enough.” Deflective attribution: It’s not about me. “The teacher doesn’t like me.”“The test isn’t fair.” 16
Pursuit of Goals Achievement Goals Learning goals (mastery): the focus of which is to learn (master) a specified skill or bit of knowledge contained within a task. Focus on task. Performance goals (ego-involvement): the student is driven to preserve positive self-perceptions and public reputations by successfully completing the task. Focus on evaluation. Some students adopt work-avoidant goals, refusing to accept the challenge of achievement, especially when performance is emphasized. 17
Motivated Toward What? It is not correct to say that a student lacks motivation when, in fact, the student is motivated by something other than what the teacher desires. Misplaced motivation 18
What Can a Teacher Do? Enthusiasm. Show personal enthusiasm for learning. Reasonable challenges. Provide each student with tasks and activities that are engaging for that student. Targeting learning tasks. Feedback. Provide each student with feedback on his/her acquisition of knowledge and skills. Autonomy. Provide each student with some autonomy in completing his/her learning tasks. Attributions. Help each student make constructive attributions for his/her successes and failures. Genuine praise and support. Show each student that he/she is valued by offering praise that is informative, appreciative, not controlling. 19
Intrinsic Motivation The classroom can promote self-determination by encouraging: 1) autonomy (deciding what to do and/or how to do it), 2) competence (importance of developing requisite skills), and 3) relatedness (connection to others). 20
Intrinsic Motivation Table 1: Subjective Experiences During Goal-Oriented Activity as Related to Perceived Levels of Challenge and Skill (Brophy, based on Csikszentmihalyi, 1993) 21
When do you experience Flow? Flow is characterized by a loss of self-consciousness and sense of time. We are happily and purposefully engaged in an activity that requires focus. When do you experience flow? 22
Motivation to Learn: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Students must be required to master a curriculum that is largely externally imposed and meet standards set by others. Choice, personal interest, and flow aren’t always an option. 23
How Teachers Build Students’ Motivation to Learn Modeling—teacher’s enthusiasm for learning and specific topic. Presentation that is clear, to the point, interactive. Social and academic interactionwith individual students. Student involvement in management of their learning toward clear objectives (Student Learning Plans, for example). 24
Students Respond to: The right blend of caring and expectations. The confidence that the teacher “knows me and thinks there is something special about me.” (The SLP is “my teacher’s plan for ME.”) Recognition of accomplishment derived from evidence of student effortand mastery. Opportunity to manage work tasks and responsibility for it. Content that is challenging and interestingly presented. 25
Key Points about Motivation 1. Treat students as if they are alreadyeager learners. 2. Show enthusiasm for learning. 3. Reward effort and mastery of new skills and new knowledge. 4. Remember expectancy(student’s anticipation of success) and value (teach important things). 26
Key Points about Motivation 5. Stress continuous progress through reasonable effort. 6. Show you care about each students’ learning and will help them. 7. Provide some autonomy for students in managing learning toward clear objectives. 8. Show your own thrill in learning. 27
Key Points about Motivation 9. Stimulate motivation with curiosity, suspense, cognitive conflict, making abstract content more personal. 10. Scaffold students’ learning with clear goals, advance organizers, planning questions and differentiated activities. 28
At-Risk and Minority Students At-risk students do especially well in classrooms that: Offer warm, inviting social environments. They are encouraged to learn from one another, and appreciate different languages and traditions. Treat the cultures that they bring to school as assets that provide students with foundations of background knowledge. Think in terms of helping minority students to become fully bicultural rather than in terms of replacing one culture with another. (Brophy, 2004, pg. 360). 29
Apathetic Students Resocialize the attitudes and behavior of apathetic students by: developing and working within close relationships with them, using contracting and incentive systems, discovering and building on their existing interests, intentionally expecting their positive attitude toward schoolwork. 30
What to do? Mastery learning is successful with low achievers and underachievers. Targeted objectives. Flexible time. Feedback. Multiple learning tasks. Extrinsic rewards and contracts may be a necessary beginning point. Teacher must find right level of challenge—interesting and doable, appropriate to the skill level. 31
Aspirations Remember that we are motivated more by what we want to be than by our past. Help students articulate their aspirations. 32
Metacognition Metacognition is: Thinking about thinking Learning skills and strategies Goal setting Problem solving Self-evaluation strategies Ability to learn independently and monitor own learning 33
The Metacognitive Cycle Defining the task: What am I expected to learn and what do I already know? Goal-setting: How will I know when I have completed the task? What strategies will I apply? Applying learning strategies: Research, practice, ask questions, memorize, outline, other strategies. Monitoring: What new information do I need? Is this a simple or difficult task? How do I approach it? How am I doing? Should I try a different strategy? 34
Building Metacognitive Abilities Connectnew learning to prior learning. Help students focus on what is expected and HOW to meet those expectations. Articulate expectations clearly. Model and demonstrate strategies for mastery. Show students how to “check” their own mastery. Break complicated processes into simpler steps. Help students focus on mastery rather than fear of failing. Help students find their own errors and self-correct. Emphasize learning, task mastery and effort rather than ability, performance and competition. 35
Modeling Whole Class Instruction 36 Show (20%): Teacher determines what students have learned in lesson. Students show learning through responding to questions, drills, or recitation. Indicators: #IIIA18-20
Wrap-Up What is motivation? What is metacognition? How does your understanding of motivation apply to whole-class instruction? How does your understanding of metacognition apply to whole-class instruction? 37
Wrap-Up 5. How does your understanding of motivation apply to work time? 6. How does your understanding of metacognition apply to work time? How can we encourage constructive attributions? 38
Applying What We Know 39 How do teachers intentionally use strategies that enhance student motivation to learn? • What do we do now? • How can it be improved? • What is our first step?
Applying What we Know 40 How do teachers intentionally use strategies that build students’ metacognitive skills? • What do we do now? • How can it be improved? • What is our first step?
Applying What We Know 41 How do teachers influence students’ constructive attribution for their success and for their failures? • What do we do now? • How can it be improved? • What is our first step?
Gallery of Improving Practices Voices of experience: Teachers intentionally use strategies that enhance student motivation, build students’ metacognitive skills, and influence students’ constructive attribution. How could an instructional planning team encourage the explicit practice of these influential strategies?
Gallery of Improving Practices Voices of experience: Proven, research-based strategies for direct instruction should be thoughtfully and purposely planned in direct instruction. How will teachers in your school plan for the intentional use of strategies suggested by Instructional Delivery Indicators (IIIA08-21; 25-27)? How will they share successful strategies with colleagues?
Task #1 Review pgs. 21-23 in Session 2 manual (WorkTime described, Weekly Class Schedule) Think and Share: How do teachers in schools differentiate between whole-class and work time? How do practices vary across grade levels? Subject areas?
Work Time The purpose of work time is to: Give students time to practice and master concepts and skills Encourage self-directed learning Provide individualized learning activities Make best use of time Allow the teacher flexibility to work with individuals or small groups 45
Guidelines for Work Time 46 A specific portion of the tasks should be related to current instruction; another should provide review. Work should be easy enough to allow students to achieve high rates of success if they give their best efforts. Extra tasks should be available for students who need extra practice or finish early.
Indicators Preparation IIIA01-02 IIIA05; IIA07 Classroom Management IIC03 IIIC01 IIIC04-06 IIIC08-10
Gallery of Improving Practices Voice of experience: Describe your plan for ensuring that differentiated instruction occurs in each classroom (i.e., Weekly Class Schedules). How will successful instructional strategies be shared in teacher planning and professional development (i.e., Instructional Team meeting agendas)?
Task # 2 Next Steps, Whole Class Instruction and Work Time Review the Next Steps on pg. 27, Session 2 manual as a school team. Complete the prompts of the Next Steps – Whole Class Instruction and Work Time as a state team in your academy workbook.
Classroom Management “The most influential category, classroom management, includes group alerting, learner accountability, smooth transitions, and teacher with-it-ness.” What Helps Students Learn? Wang, Haertel, and Walberg