What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is using the words, ideas, research results, formulae, images, or data from another person without giving credit to the originator of those words, ideas, research results, formulae, images or data
Many students feel that by using footnotes, endnotes, or citations their papers will not be as good as papers that make fewer references to other works. But this conclusion is just plain wrong…
Paper with citations—no plagiarism No citations—plagiarized material In fact, the student who cites sources where appropriate guarantees a better grade than the student who writes a paper without adequately giving credit to the source material!
Why?!? By providing citations to other works, a writer is showing how he or she is entering into the conversation of a given field, building upon what’s already been said and adding his or her own voice.
When do you need to cite a source? Whenever you use the • words (written or spoken) • ideas • formulae • research results • images or • data of another person--unless that information is common knowledge
What is“common knowledge?” “Common knowledge” is anything that is considered known by the vast majority of the population—or found in generalized encyclopedias and/or dictionaries. Examples include: • Chicago is the largest city in Illinois • a2 + b2 = c2 In those examples, you would not be expected to cite the census or Pythagoras.
Example of when you would be expected to cite a source: When you’re including information that isn’t common knowledge, you would want to cite it: William Butler Ogden, the first mayor of Chicago, designed the first swing bridge over the Chicago River (ByCityLight, 2). The complete reference for this source would then be found at the end of the paper in the “Works Cited” page: “Chicago, Illinois.” ByCityLights.com. 31 October 2007 <bycitylights.com/cities/us-il-chicago-history.php>.
As Julius Smith notes, “[i]n 2D, the Pythagorean Theorem says that when x and y are orthogonal… then we have: ║x+y║2 =║x║2 + ║y║2 (x┴y).”(Fourier Theorems) The “Works Cited” page would include this citation: Smith, J.O. "Fourier Theorems for the DFT" in Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with Audio Applications, 2nd ed. 2007.31 October 2007 <http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Fourier_Theorems_DFT.html>. Another example:
It’s fairly obvious that copying directly from a source without using quotation marks and not providing a citation is plagiarism.What about when we copy from a source and change a few words (i.e., paraphrase) without indicating its originator? This is also plagiarism.
Why is paraphrasing plagiarism? If you steal your roommate’s pillow and put it in your pillowcase, it is still your roommate’s pillow, right? It’s no different if you take an idea from someone else—it’s still their idea, not yours.
Thought problems Properly using citations in a research paper ensures a better grade than not using any citations.T / F WHY?
As long as you have a Bibliography/Works Cited/Works Consulted page, you will not need to use footnotes or endnotes or parenthetical references.T / F WHY?
The above statement was taken from a scholarly journal. If a student were to include the sentence on the right in a research paper, would it be considered plagiarism? Students who use alcohol or marijuana are more likely to use tobacco. Plagiarism or not? “Tobacco use was significantly higher among white students (P<.001), users of other substances (alcohol and marijuana) (P<.001), and students whose priorities were social rather than educational or athletic (P<.05).” (Rigotti, Lee and Wechsler, 699)
Using the same sentence, above, determine whether the student’s statement on the right would be considered plagiarism or not. Athletes are not as likely to use tobacco as those students who attend college with the aim of meeting friends. Plagiarism or not? “Tobacco use was significantly higher among white students (P<.001), users of other substances (alcohol and marijuana) (P<.001), and students whose priorities were social rather than educational or athletic (P<.05).” (Rigotti, Lee and Wechsler, 699)
When in doubt… • Ask Mr. P! • Ask Ms. PQ! • Ask a librarian! We all want to see you succeed!
Works Consulted “Chicago, Illinois.” ByCityLights.com. 31 October 2007 <bycitylights.com/cities/us-il-chicago-history.php>. “Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices.” Online posting. 22 October 2007 <http://wpacouncil.org/positions/plagiarism.html>. Moulton, Janice and George Robinson. “Plagiarism” Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2002. “Plagiarism.” Online posting. 25 October 2007 <http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/plagiarism.html> Rigotti, Nancy A., Jae Eun Lee, and Henry Wechsler. “U.S. College Students’ Use of Tobacco Products.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000): 699-705. Stepchyshyn, Vera and Robert S.Nelson. Library Plagiarism Policies: CLIP Note #37. Chicago: American Library Assocation, 2007. Smith, J.O. "Fourier Theorems for the DFT" in Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with Audio Applications, 2nd ed. 2007.31 October 2007 <http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Fourier_Theorems_DFT.html>.
Created by: Jean MacDonald Ames Library