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Aprendizagem Significativa e Metodologias Ativas em Educação Médica

Aprendizagem Significativa e Metodologias Ativas em Educação Médica

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Aprendizagem Significativa e Metodologias Ativas em Educação Médica

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  1. Aprendizagem Significativa e Metodologias Ativas em Educação Médica Stewart Mennin Frontiers in Medical Education

  2. Overview: • Theories of active learning • Complicate - complex • Methods, applications & implications • Frontiers in research Frontiers in Medical Education

  3. Teaching & Learning • Teaching rests on particular beliefs about learning • We all work from particular theories (ways of seeing) Frontieras da Educacao

  4. History of Technology & Learning Theory • Catapults • Hydraulics • Telegraphs • Telephone switchboard’s • Computers • Cell phones Frontieras da Educacao

  5. Thinking About Education • Essential elements • Theory of knowledge • What is learned • Theory of learning • How it is learned Frontieras da Educacao

  6. Essential Ingredients of Education • Information • Context • Experience • Interaction, transaction • Transformation - X∆ • Reflection - intention Frontieras da Educacao

  7. What Is Information? • Differences, variations, edges, irregularities • Impinge on senses • Patterns Frontieras da Educacao

  8. Patterns Matter

  9. Edges Are Information

  10. Edges, Boundaries, Patterns • Choices • Categories • Context

  11. Learning is Context Dependent 50 45 40   35   Recalled on land 30 % Words Recalled   Recalled underwater 25  20 15 10 5 0 Learned on land Learned underwater Godden & Baddeley, 1975

  12. Reflection & Feedback • Mutually agreed upon • Timely • Constructive - useful • Results in a plan for action • Supportive • Improves learning • Improves memory Frontiers in Medical Education

  13. Complicated & Complex Theories of Learning Com plicae – to fold, enfold Com plex – to weave Frontieras da Educacao

  14. TheoriesKnowledge (Knowing)~ Learning Knowledge independent of learner Knowledge in the mind constructed by learner Knowing as emerging from self-organization Theories of Knowledge Frontieras da Educacao

  15. Complicated Theories of Learning • Behaviorism • Mentalism • Complex • Constructivism • Individual • Social • Ecological • Self-Organization Frontieras da Educacao

  16. Behaviorism • Thought is internal • Observable stimulus-behavior is most important • Feedback and reward affect learning • Learning is linear and cumulative • Cause and effect • Behavioral objectives, goals, structured courses, programmed learning • Thought and action as “mechanical” Frontieras da Educacao

  17. Mentalism Knowledge exists outside of knowing agents (objective) Learning is a matter of representing & internalizing knowledge (subjective) Knowledge is something to be acquired, grasped, held, possessed, exchanged, managed Learning is about connecting external to internal Role of teacher to present information Frontieras da Educacao

  18. Computer Metaphors in Cognition • Learning as acquiring & inputting data • Learning difficulties as problems with brain wiring • Communication as transmission & interfacing Frontieras da Educacao

  19. Computer Metaphors • Thinking as processing and compiling information • Memorizing as storing • Remembering as retrieving and outputting Frontieras da Educacao

  20. TheoriesKnowledge (Knowing)~ Learning Knowledge independent of learner Knowledge in the mind constructed by learner Knowing as emerging from self-organization Theories of Knowledge Frontieras da Educacao

  21. Complex Theories of Learning • Complicated • Behaviorism • Mentalism • Constructivism • Individual • Social • Self-Organization Frontieras da Educacao

  22. Constructivism • Personal & collective knowledge derives from experience in the world • Teachers as guide, facilitator • Teachers provide experiences to expose gaps between old & new experiences • Teachers engage students in active ways, using problems & groups • Sufficient time for in-depth examination of new experiences • Reflection Frontieras da Educacao

  23. Embodied Perception • Sensing & perceptions are active • History imposes expectations • Perception & conception are inseparable • Information is variation, difference, edge Frontieras da Educacao

  24. Wikibooks, 2009 Frontieras da Educacao

  25. TheoriesKnowledge (Knowing)~ Learning Knowledge independent of learner Knowledge in the mind constructed by learner Knowing as emerging from self-organization Theories of Knowledge Frontieras da Educacao

  26. Where Do New Patterns Come From? • Connections, exchanges & inter-actions • Adaptive variable iterations • Simple Rules • Self-organization

  27. Demonstration of Self-Organization 15 volunteers Frontieras da Educacao

  28. EXAMPLES OF SELF-ORGANIZATION & EMERGENT PATTERNS

  29. SELF-ORGANIZATION

  30. Origin of Patterns Olson & Eoyang, 2001 Frontieras da Educacao

  31. CONDITIONS FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION • Gradients–gaps–fuzzy boundaries • N2K Need to know • Multiple diverse agents • X∆, co-evolution • Dynamical, far from equilibrium • Recursive (multiple short-loops) Frontieras da Educacao

  32. Complex Theories of Learning • Learning is more about a reaching out than taking in • It is a participation – an exchange • It is a process of re-membering, of pulling together - connecting Davis, Sumara, Luce-Kapler, 2000 Frontieras da Educacao

  33. Complex Theories of Learning Learning Is: • Not about acquiring or accumulating information • A matter of keeping pace with one’s evolving circumstances • A constant revision of memories, capacity for action, and ranges of possibilities Davis, Sumara, Luce-Kapler, 2000 Frontieras da Educacao

  34. Complex Theories of Learning Becoming Davis, Sumara, Luce-Kapler, 2000 “What an agent knows is inseparable from what that agent does, which is in turn inseparable from what or who that agent is. Knowing is doing is being” Frontieras da Educacao

  35. Adult Learners • Safe effective learning climate • Involved in mutual planning of relevant methods & curricular content • Involved in diagnosing own needs—helps motivation Malcolm Knowles, 1984 Frontieras da Educacao

  36. Adult Learners • Encouraged to identify resources & devise strategies to achieve goals • Support in carrying out learning plans • Involve in evaluating own learning— Malcolm Knowles, 1984 Frontieras da Educacao

  37. Activity Is Necessary & Not Sufficient • Action –recursion • Transaction • Transformation • Co-evolution Frontiers in Medical Education

  38. Dr. Al-Eraky, M. International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Frontieras da Educacao

  39. Dr. Al-Eraky, M. International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Frontiers in Medical Education

  40. Foundational Knowledge Learning How to Learn Significant Learning Application Caring Humanism Integration L.Dee Fink, 2003 Frontieras da Educacao

  41. LEARNING FOR UNDERSTANDING REQUIRES • Adequate time • Deliberate practice • Multiple experiences over time • Variable Iteration • Test for understanding • Questioning, disagreeing, choosing Frontiers in Medical Education

  42. Instructional Time

  43. % Rote Learning in Medical School Frontieras da Educacao

  44. Problem Solving Frontieras da Educacao

  45. Approaches to Interactive TransformativeLearning Approaches Frontieras da Educacao

  46. Teaching Skills for Interactive Learning • Degree of directedness & responsibility • Liberating constraints • Draw out and work with learners’ experience • In-depth exploration, multiple examples • Reflection on & in action Frontiers in Medical Education

  47. MAKING UNDERSTANDING VISIBLETeaching Skills • Consult your colleague • Reciprocal teaching • Polling the class • Frequent formative assessments • Explore understanding • Cases/problems • Prototypes • Questioning Frontiers in Medical Education

  48. Forms of “Interactive” Learning • Groups with cases, problems • Problematization • Problem-based learning (PBL) • Team-based learning (TBL) • Case-based learning (CBL) • Community-based learning (CBME) Frontiers in Medical Education

  49. Dynamics of Interaction, History & Reflection FOCUS ON PROCESS OF KNOWING • New knowledge emerges from enacting with the world • History shapes receptivity to information & action in context • Teachers help to frame subjects • Teachers need to know about & stimulate students’ knowing (history) Frontiers in Medical Education

  50. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS • Create situations (activities) to make understanding visible (accessible) • Stimulate exploration & reflection • Foster self-organization in new situations Frontiers in Medical Education