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Strategisk Ledelse

Strategisk Ledelse. 6. undervisningsgang – 8. oktober 2012. Lectures, Autumn 2012. Systems Dynamics Nonlinearity and Positive feedback. Peter Senge is the father of Learning Organization

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Strategisk Ledelse

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  1. Strategisk Ledelse 6. undervisningsgang – 8. oktober 2012

  2. Lectures, Autumn 2012

  3. Systems DynamicsNonlinearity and Positive feedback • Peter Senge is the father of Learning Organization • Learning requires people to think in systems terms, in order to understand surroundings and leverage points • Based on nonlinearity and positive feedback • Nonlinearity occurs when some condition or action has varying effect on an outcome, depending on levels • System dynamics may display the possibility to display non-equilibrium when flipping between +/- FB • Cyclic behavior may occur and may be very irregular, if dependant on environmental fluctuations • Important in understanding economic cycles and certain applications to organizations

  4. Systems DynamicsPrinciples of systems dynamics Principles about Complex Human Systems: • Complex systems often produces unexpected and counterintuitive results • with nonlinear relationships, or with positive and negative feedback, the links between cause and effect are distant in time and space • High sensitivity to some changes but remarkably insensitive to many other changes and these systems contain some influential pressure, or leverage points • Managers can influence the system at these points, however they are difficult to identify • Positive feedback (or regenerative feedback) occurs in a feedback loop when the mathematical sign of the net gain around the feedback loop is positive. That is, positive feedback is in phase with the input, in the sense that it adds to make the input larger. Positive feedback is a process in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system can include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation

  5. animation of complex systems dynamics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_dynamics

  6. Systems DynamicsCognitivistPsychology • People who have personal mastery obtains the results they want and it commits to lifelong learning and may be linked to spiritual foundations • Mental models are internal pictures of the external world. They are ingrained assumptions or generalisations often taking the form of pictures or images in individual minds, which often are hidden or unconscious mental constructions • Management teams can change mental models and is cognitivist psychology as in SCT, which claims that humans are compelled to simplify everything observed • Managers are humans as well and inevitably invent, so some extent, what they observe

  7. Systems DynamicsConstructivist Psychology • In Constructivist Psychology, people do not simply respond to stimuli about what is already there • Rather, they select aspects of their environment according to their own identities and therefore enacting the environment relevant to them • This is active cognition (recognising and responding) rather than passive (what is already there) • Constructivist viewpoint because the world people act into is the world they have created by acting into it • The shift in psychological model challenges SCT, however still focus on systems and individuals

  8. Systems DynamicsEnactment and sensemaking • Stimuli are placed in a framework so that they can comprehend, explain, extrapolate and predict • Individuals form conscious and unconscious anticipations of what they expect to encounter.Sense- making is triggered encounters are different. • The need for explanation is triggered by surprises and meaning is ascribed retrospectively • Sense making is the process people employ to cope with interruptions of ongoing activity • A distinction between collective and inter-subjective (individual-relating) forms of sense makig. • Storytelling places cues for making sensne • Novelty arises in dissonance, surprises, gaps etc.

  9. Systems DynamicsSingle and double loop learning • Single loop learning reuses previously acquired mental models for automating actions as unconscious processes • Risk of skilled incompetence because unconscious models become taken for granted and requires stable environments • Double loop learning occurs when actions are adjusted in the light of their consequences and questioning and adjusting the unconscious mental models used • Possible difference between espoused and used models • Managers often espouse rational models and at the same time other models as games for deception

  10. Systems DynamicsSingle and double loop learning • When mental models are questioned in double loop learning, fears arise because of the possibility to fail producing functioning alternatives to old models • Defence routines – or covert politics – are activated, may end out in bland mission and vision statements • The organization loses out on the creativity of people because of the management model it uses • Managers must reflect jointly on the process they are engaged in, as a challenge, in order to be able to engage in double loop learning • Double loop learning is then changing a mental model which again enables innovation

  11. Next time • Please read chapter 5

  12. Øvelse Forklar karakteristika: • Gruppe 1: kognitiv og konstruktivistisk psykologi • Gruppe 2: Enactment • Gruppe 3: Single og Double loop learning

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