Chapter 1Early Intervening ServicesResponse to InterventionMichele SutleyEryn Budd
Introduction to early intervention • Intervention can happen in the beginning of the year or even over a period of months. • As teachers, we are able to identify the students that have difficulty adjusting to routines and procedures. • Academic achievement data should then be collected: • standardized achievement tests • informal evaluation procedures • grades • class observations • work-sample analyses • and behavioral rating data
Section 1: early intervening services (EIS) • The 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) instituted 2 key changes in IDEA, which aligned with NCLB: • To promote the importance of knowing the students • To recognize the need for early identification of academic and/or behavioral problems • EIS is intended to help students who have not been identified as eligible for special education but require additional academic or behavioral support
Goals of EIS • Prevent unnecessary academic failure • Implement evidence-based interventions for all students • Prevent unnecessary referral to special education • Use prevention rather than reaction to student difficulties • Combat the rising proportion of students identified with learning disabilities • Ultimately, eliminate the over identification of minority students for special ed. services
the early intervening services processes • Although not mandated in every state, many state departments of ed. Require school districts to have a formal process to address and document interventions that are attempted before the student is referred for formal testing in order to determine eligibility for classification and special ed. services. • The primary function of EIS is to problem solve.
early intervening services team memberships and roles • The EIS team generally consists of school administrators, school nurses, guidance counselors, remedial specialists, several classroom teachers, and often parents work collaboratively with other team members as problem solvers. • The team defines keys issues involved and suggests remedial strategies and services that can be implemented in the general ed. Classroom in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the targeted problems
Collaboration: an essential component of the early intervening services team • Classroom teachers are an important part of the process: • They explain the student’s strengths and problem areas • They identify the instructional, curricular, and environmental modifications attempted • Reports on how successful the above modifications have been
Sample student intervention plan Name: Jane Doe Grade: 7th Date of Birth: 6/11/99 Date of conference: 10/14/11 1. Describe the present concerns: -difficulty staying on task -Inattentiveness -Failure to complete assignments -Inability to follow written or oral directions 2. Describe the type of disorder (if known): ADD 3. List reasonable accommodations: -Move seat near teacher’s desk -Provide a work space carrel -Modify assignments -Assign a student study buddy -Have homework assignment book signed 4. Designate classes where accommodation will be provided: All Participants listed:
Section 2: the screening process • Screening is the first step in the overall assessment process • The purpose of the screening process is to collect data to determine whether more intensive or additional assessments should be conducted • Parental consent is required for individual screening of a student; however, consent is not needed on a large-group basis • Focus for the screening should be on: • Class work and homework • Work-study skills • Classroom adjustment • Work samples • Attention to detail and time on task • Work pace and work quality
Considerations when selecting an eis screening assessment • Consider assessments that are sensitive to cultural and linguistic differences • Ensure the assessments are academically, developmentally, and functionally appropriate for the age level, skill level, or culture of the student
Screening assessment procedures • Informal diagnostic assessments include: • Teacher-made tests • Skill inventories • Behavioral checklists • Daily observations • And student interviews
Individual screening procedures • It is important to identify any personal and/or environmental factors that may be inhibiting the student’s classroom adjustment and to determine which types of instructional materials and methods seem to be most effective. • In addition to academic and behavioral screenings, speech, vision, and hearing screenings are utilized as informal screenings as well.
Group screening procedures • Administered to an entire group or population • NJASK • Beginning of the year benchmark tests
Preschool and kindergarten screening for students “at risk” • Children under age 5 are typically referred for evaluation by parental request, pediatrician, or preschool screenings • Evaluations include: • A physical examination • Review of developmental history • Vision screenings • A hearing test
Section 3: RTI • A critical component of RTI is progress monitoring • Poor performance may reflect curriculum disability rather than student disability • Not mandated by federal law • Steps to problem solving include: • Identify the problem • Define the problem • Plan the intervention • Implement the intervention • Assess intervention success • Determine the next step
Section 3: RTI • Click to view Span NJ publication for RTI
5 Reasons for Assessment • Screening • Progress monitoring • Determining eligibility and making diagnoses • Instructional and program planning • Determining program effectiveness
Section 4: Implementation of RTI • RTI emphasizes “students outcomes instead of student deficits” • Improve academic performance
Section 4: Implementation of RTI • RTI is designed into a tier system • Each tier system provides: • Intense and high-quality instruction • Frequent progress monitoring • Criteria
Tier 1 • Whole class general education • Screening assessment to determine guided instruction decisions • Screening should be based on classroom curriculum • Determines individual student achievement compared to peers • Identifies students at risk • Ensure all students are benefiting from instruction
Tier 2 • Instructional accommodations change based on students needs • Small group instruction • Frequent monitoring • If student reaches goal, they are moved back to Tier 1, if not they are placed in Tier 3
Instruction is individual focused or in very small group Referrals should be considered Diagnostic procedures and progress monitoring are critical Tier 3
IDEA Federal funding Requires public schools to provide free and appropriate education Ages 3 to 21 US Department of Education 504 Civil rights law Protects the rights of people with disabilities in programs and activities receiving federal funds through US Dept. of Ed. All ages (military service, employment and school services US Dept. of Justice IDEA vs. 504
Section 504 Accommodations • Examples of accommodations • Modify instruction • Extended exam time • Alternative testing formats • Increased time to complete a course • Assistive technology
Section 504 Protections • Parents are able to file concerns and complaints to the office of Civil Rights • If school is at fault, school is liable for damages and possible federal funding • Accommodations beyond high school • Provisions from public education, deny of benefits and extended extracurricular activities
What would you do? • Cassandra and Katrina are children in your class. Cassandra has recently been in an accident and is now legally blind. Katrina has just been diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder (ADD). Both children’s parents ask about educational services for which their daughters might be eligible. What would you do?
Section 6: Progress Monitoring • A valid and effective tool to gauge effective instruction • Prevent the “wait to fail” approach • Promotes self motivation • Focus on short-term objectives and annual goals • The earlier the better!
Steps for Implementing Progress Monitoring • Determine students current performance level • Identify learning goals • Establish and implement instructional goals • Measure performance regularly • Chart students progress • Analyze the results and plan pg.17