Green Algae and Land Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Green Algae and Land Plants

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  1. Green Algae and Land Plants

  2. Bacteria Archaea AMOEBOZOA Lobose amoebae 7 lineages of eukaryotes Cellular slime molds Plasmodial slime molds UNIKONTA OPISTHOKONTA Fungi Choanoflagellates Animals All eukaryotes are protists except for the fungi, animals, and land plants EXCAVATA Parabasilids EUKARYOTES Diplomonads Euglenids Kinetoplastids PLANTAE Glaucophyte algae Red algae Green algae Green plants Land plants BIKONTA RHIZARIA Foraminifera Chlorarachniophytes ALVEOLATA Ciliates Dinoflagellates Apicomplexa CHROMALVEOLATA STRAMENOPILA Oomycetes Diatoms Brown algae

  3. Chlamydomonas

  4. Volvox

  5. Volvox reproduction

  6. Ulva

  7. Red algae GREEN ALGAE Ulvophytes Coleochaetes Spores or zygotes encased in tough coat of sporopollenin Stoneworts NON-VASCULAR PLANTS Liverworts Vascular tissue Mosses Cuticle, pores Hornworts Stomata SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Most key innovations for living on land evolved only once Early vascular plants (fossils only) Lycophytes Whisk ferns Vascular tissue Horsetails LAND PLANTS Roots, tracheids Ferns GYMNOSPERMS Cycads True leaves Ginkgo Redwoods et al. Pines et al. Vessel elements evolved more than once Wood Gnetophytes Vessel elements ANGIOSPERMS Vessel elements Angiosperms

  8. Hepaticophyta

  9. (a) Simple water- conducting cells (c) Tracheids (d) Vessel elements (b) First vascular tissue Ends have pits in secondary cell wall (inside) Ends have gaps through primary and secondary cell walls Primary wall (with cellulose) Primary wall (with cellulose) Primary wall (with cellulose) Primary wall (with cellulose) Secondary wall (with lignin) Secondary wall (with lignin) Lignin Found in gnetophytes and angiosperms Little structural support. Found in fossils and present-day mosses Some structuralsupport. Found in fossils Increased structuralsupport. Found in all vascular plants

  10. Lycophyta

  11. Equisetophyta

  12. Pteridophyta

  13. gymnosperms

  14. M I T O S I S S I S O I E P O L L I N A T I O N S I S O I E M N O I T A Z I L I T R E F S I S O T I M M Microspore (n) forms pollen grain Pollen grain (male gametophyte) Cones with microsporangia Megasporangium Pollen grain Ovulate cone Mother cell (2n) Ovules (contain megasporangia) Female gametophyte (n) Archegonia Eggs (n) Embryo (2n) Mature sporophyte (2n) Developing sporophyte Pollen produces sperm Seed (disperses via wind or animals)

  15. I S S O I T M S I S O I E M P O L L I N A T I O N S I S O M I T S I S O I E M N E O L I B T A U Z O I D L I T R E F S I S O T I M Microspore (n) forms pollen grain Pollen grain (male gametophyte) Anther Top of stamen Ovule Ovary Egg Female gametophyte (n: retained in ovary) Bottom of carpel Megaspore (n: retained in ovary) Megasporangium Mature sporophyte flower (2n) Endosperm (3n) forms nutritive tissue in seed Nutritive tissue (3n) Embryo (2n) Zygote (2n) Developing sporophyte Seed (disperses via wind or animals)