Viking Exploration • 8th Century to the 12th Century A.D • They Came from Scandinavia and explored parts of Europe, Iceland, Greenland, and were the 1st to reach the new world. • Around the year 1000, Leif Eriksson reached what we now call Canada.
Highlights of the 15th and 16th Century: Renaissance • 1439 –Johannes Gutenberg- invents the printing press. • 1492 – Christopher Columbus discovers the new world. - Jews expelled from Spain (Spanish Inquisition) • 1502 -Michelangelo works on the ‘David’ • 1503 -De Vinci starts painting the Mona Lisa • 1564 -William Shakespeare is born -Galileo Galilei is born • 1608- Samuel de Champlain in Quebec- The new world is settled for the first time by Europeans
Modern European Exploration Highlights • 1492- Christopher Columbus sails to the new world. • 1497- John Cabot discovers Canada. • 1502- Amerigo Vespucci- America was named after him. • 1519- Cortes and the Spanish claim Mexico. • 1519-1522-Magellan was the first to sail around the world. • 1524- Giovanni de Verrazano sailed along the east coast and into New York. • 1532 -Pizzaro and the Spanish defeat the Inca.
Christopher Columbus • Born Christoffa Corombo in Genoa, Italy. Always had an interest in reading, maps, and sailing from a young age. • He went to Spain and asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella for permission to sail for them. - He wanted to prove that the world was round. - Searched for the western passage to India and Asia. Europe had a demand for silks and spices. • He received 3 ships: 1. Nina 2. Pinta 3. Santa Maria (the biggest; he sailed on it) • The ships were Caravels- the fastest ships in Europe. • In 1492- Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue. After months, he landed in the new world. Named the native people there indians because he thought he was in India. He actually landed in Hispaniola (Haiti) in the bahamas. • Claimed the land for the king and queen of Spain. • died in 1506
John Cabot • Born Giovanni Caboto in Italy in 1450. • He wanted to find a faster route to Asia. More fishing routes(cod). • He sailed for King Henry the VII of England out of the port of Bristol. • 1497-Sailed on the Matthew -Discovered Newfoundland, 1st modern European in North America. • Claimed the land for the king of England. • 1498- He disappeared forever.
LIFE ABOARD SHIP • Crews worked in four-hour shifts. Their duties included pumping bilge, cleaning the deck, working the sails, and checking the ropes and cargo. When they were off duty, they slept anywhere they could find space. The captain himself often spent days without sleep. Only the captain had private quarters. The sailors' lives were hard, and they often died from disease, hunger, and thirst. Religion was the central focus of their lives. Every day began with prayers and hymns and ended with religious services in the evenings. The crew received one hot meal a day cooked over an open fire in a sandbox on deck. Their diet consisted of ship's biscuit, pickled or salted meat, dried peas, cheese, wine, and fresh-caught fish. When the "Niña" left on any of her three voyages to the New World, her cargo hold was full of provisions, water, armaments. There were live animals ranging from horses, cows, pigs, and chickens. The four-legged animals were suspended in slings as the rolling motion of the vessel would have easily broken their legs. Needless to say, there was little room below decks for the 27 or so crew to sleep or cook. Cooking was done in a fire box located on decks in the bow of the ship. Sleeping was on the deck and was always uncomfortable as the ship was so loaded with cargo, her decks were always awash. A lucky few could sleep on the poop deck or find a coil of rope to sleep on to keep them off the deck a foot or so.
Jacques Cartier • Born in France in 1491. He sailed with Verrazzano when he was young and proved that America was a huge continent. • 1534- 1st Voyage for King Francois of France. He left St. Malo in search of a western passage to Asia and India. • 1st to discover, sail, and map the St. Lawrence. Used the Iroquois name of Kanata on his map. • Met and befriended the Iroquois. Traded animal furs for metal objects. • Erected a wooden cross with the Fleur-de-lys in the name of the king of France. • Reached the village of Stadacona (Quebec City) along the St. Lawrence river and met Chief Donacona. • After angering the chief, Cartier kidnapped his 2 sons and returned to France as proof of a discovery.
Jacques Cartier (Cont.) • 1535- 2nd voyage with more ships. Returned the sons of the chief, brought gifts, and were friends again. Explored the St. Lawrence and using small boats because of the rapids, reached the village of Hochelaga (Montreal). • Named the mountain- mont real (mount Royal). At the top, he was told of riches on the other side in the land of the Saguenay. • Realized the St. Lawrence was not the passage to Asia. • Stuck in the new world for winter- built a fort near Stadacona, upset the chief. Disease of Scurvy (lack of vitamins) hit the village and the Iroquois blamed the French. Many natives and French sailors died. –secret native medicine-boiling leaves from the white cedar tree to make tea cured them. • Cartier survived the winter and wanted to bring Chief Donnacona back to France. After he refused, Cartier Kidnapped him and when the natives declared war, Cartier got him to calm them down. • They returned to France and met the King. Cartier was granted a 3rd voyage.
Jacques Cartier (Cont.) • 1541-3rd Voyage- the hunt for riches, convert the natives, and settle the land- not looking for the route to Asia. The king chose Jean Francois de la Roques de Roberval to lead the expedition. • Cartier was on another ship and reached the new world first. Cartier told the new Chief, Agona, that Donacona died in France and thought it wouldn’t be a good idea to go back to Stadacona. He tried to set up the 1st French settlement in the new world, and called it Chalesbourg Royal on the Cap Rouge river near Stadacona. The Natives attacked it for two years until they abandoned it. • 1542- Cartier left for France with what he thought was a supply of Gold and Diamonds and passed Roberval on the way. Unfortunately, they were fake: iron pyrite and quartz pieces. • 1557- Cartier died in St. Malo
Samuel de Champlain • Born in Brouage, on the coast of France, in 1567. His family had a history as sea captains. He was a soldier for France. • 1603-1st trip to the new world with a fur trader to a trading post at Tadoussac. He drew maps and kept notes about the algonkian natives and the land. He noticed that their canoes were much faster than his small boats. • 1605- Champlain and Mr. de Monts built Port Royal (Coast of Nova Scotia) where they stayed for three years. It was abandoned in 1607 when they said goodbye to their Micmac friends and to de Monts Monopoly of the fur trade. • 1608- July 3rd, built Le Habitation- 1st permanent settlement in the New world and the capital of New France, later to be Quebec City and the Capital of the Province. • Champlain aided the Huron's in their battles against the Iroquois. The Iroquois would become mortal enemies of the French. • In 1629 Champlain suffered the humiliation of having to surrender Le Habitation to The Kirke brothers and an English fleet, and he himself was taken prisoner back to England. • In 1632, peace had been declared by England and France, and the settlement was restored to French rule. • Champlain would return from Europe to spend his remaining years in the colony. He became governor of New France in 1633. • On December 25th, 1635, this Father of New France and Canada died.
Over the years… • New France continued to grow; however slowly. Settlers founded Trois-Rivières, farther up the St. Lawrence, in 1634. • The farthest outpost of New France for many years was Montreal, founded by Paul de Chomedey Sieur de Maisonneuve on May 18, 1642. -First known as Hochelaga, then Ville-Marie, this settlement, one day would become Canada's largest city, was begun as a mission post. • One of the most famous of the leaders who accompanied de Chomedey was Jeanne Mance, founder of the Hotel-Dieu, the first hospital at Ville-Marie. • Over the next 40 years after Quebec's founding, dozens of missionary posts would be built in Huron territory. The Huron's were under threat of attack from Iroquois tribes dwelling south and east of Lake Ontario. In 1648 the Iroquois invaded Huron land and wiped out most of the Huron's and French missionaries living in the territory. The French settlers and Iroquois would fight many battles around the outskirts of New France. • England was quick to follow up on its claim to the back-door route towards fur country by establishing the Hudson's Bay Company in 1670.