Present Tense She praises her mother. She is praising her mother. She does praise her mother.
Past Tense She praised her mother. She was praising her mother. She did praise her mother.
Latin is better. Latin has a present tense and TWO past tenses
Present Tense puellamatremlaudat. The girl praisesher mother. The girl is praising her mother. The girl does praise her mother.
Imperfect Tense puellamatremlaudābat. The girl was praising her mother. The girl used to praise her mother.
Perfect Tense puellamatremlaudāvit. The girl praisedher mother. The girl did praise her mother. The girl has praised her mother.
puellamatremlaudābat. – Imperfect Tense The girl was praising her mother. puellamatremlaudāvit. – Perfect Tense The girl praised her mother.
What’s going on here? laudābatmeans “she was praising”? laudāvitmeans “she praised”? So they both happened in the past? NON INTELLEGO.
The imperfect tense is used for continuing or repeated action in the past. The perfect tense is for single events completed in the past. See the difference?
Oh, I get it now! puellamatremlaudābatcotidie. The girl was praising her mother daily. puellamatremlaudāvitheri. The girl praised her mother yesterday. Cicero librumscribēbat. Cicero librumscripsit. Cicero was writing a book. Cicero wrote a book.
BENE! OPTIME! bonus discipulus es.
Present Tense present stem personal ending
Personal Endings of Verbs • the last part of a verb form identifies the subject • three persons • two numbers
Personal Endings of Verbs for the present tense 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd sing. sing. sing plural plural plural I you he, she, it we you all they -ō/m -s -t -mus -tis -nt
Present Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd sing. sing. sing plural plural plural laud laudā laudā laudā laudā laudā ō s t mus tis nt
Imperfect Tense present stem tense sign -BĀ- personal ending
Imperfect Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd sing. sing. sing plural plural plural laudā laudā laudā laudā laudā laudā m s t mus tis nt ba bā ba bā bā ba
Perfect Tense perfect stem perfect personal ending
How can I find the Perfect Stem? from the 3rd principal part
1st principal part laudō This is the 1st singular present tense. “I praise”
2nd principal part laudāre This is the present infinitive. “to praise” present stem + re
3rd principal part laudāvī This is the perfect tense. “I praised” perfect stem + perfectpersonal ending
Perfect Tense Personal Endings 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd sing. sing. sing plural plural plural I you he, she, it we you all they -ī -istī -it -imus -istis -ērunt
Perfect Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd sing. sing. sing plural plural plural laudāv laudāv laudāv laudāv laudāv laudāv ī istī it imus istis ērunt
portō, portāre, portāvī portat portābat portāvit present imperfect perfect
ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī ambulat ambulābat ambulāvit present imperfect perfect
dicō, dicere, dixī dicit dicēbat dixit present imperfect perfect
regō, regere, rexī (rule) regit regēbat rexit present imperfect perfect
mittō, mittere, misī (send) mittit mittēbat misit present imperfect perfect
scribō, scribere, scripsī scribit scribēbat scripsit present imperfect perfect
moneō, monēre, monuī (warn) monet monēbat monuit present imperfect perfect