Agriscience Chapter 1 Mr. Pullom Fall 2011
Objectives • Explain agriscience and technology • Relate the meaning and importance of AFNR • Identify career pathways in AFNR • Explain the importance of human needs in AFNR • Assess the role of consumers and their preferences
Terms • AFNR • Agriscience • Aquatic animals • Career pathway • Consumer • Customs • Demand • fiber • Food • Human need • Nutrient • Shelter • Standard of living • Technology • Terrestrial animals
Agriscience • Agriscience is the use of science principles in producing food, fiber, and shelter materials. • Applied agriscience – the use of knowledge in the production of plants and animals • Basic agriscience provides information to understand how a process works.
Technology • Technology is the practical application of science. • Is used to increase the yield and quality of plant and animal products. • Also reduces human labor requirements to produce crops. • Appropriate technology is using good judgment to make decisions about what technology to use. • In developed countries, advanced technology may be used. In lesser developed countries, simple technology may work best. • The people may not know how to use, maintain, and set up the technology.
AFNR • AFNR- the abbreviation for Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources. • Addresses the production, marketing, and processing of agricultural commodities. • Includes food and fiber products as well as wood, natural resources, horticulture, and other products of plant and/or animal origin. • AFNR cluster is the most important. It deals with meeting the fundamental needs of human life and well-being. • Career pathway is a group of careers based on similarities of duties, subjects, and skills.
AFNR and Human Needs • A human need is an essential element or component that supports human life. • Food, fiber, and shelter • Food provides the nutrition that helps the body to grow, to repair itself, and to reproduce. • Fiber and shelter provide protection from the weather, dangerous animals, and other hazards of life.
Food • Food is the solid and liquid material humans and other living things consume. • A nutrient is a substance necessary for an organism to live and grow. • Humans need food for four purposes: • Energy, growth and repair, good health, and body processes • Food comes from two sources: • Plants and animals • Modern processing is used to change food materials into more desirable forms, such as wheat into flour for making bread. • Only about 600 species of the 250,000 species of plants are used for human food. • Wheat, rice, and corn are the major human food items around the world.
Food cont. • Terrestrial animals- grow on land • Chickens, hogs, sheep, and cattle • Aquatic animals – live in water • Fish, shrimp, and clams • Some 2 million species of animals live on Earth. Only about 50 species are used to any extent for human food. • Of that 50, only 4 are raised in large numbers: Cattle, hogs, chicken, and sheep. • Fish farming has increased due to a decrease in the number of wild fish in streams and oceans. • Aquaculture is the industry associated with aquatic animal production
Fiber (clothing) • Fiber is primarily the material used to make clothing and shelter. • Fiber is produced in three ways: • By animals • By plants • By manufacturing
Animal Fibers • Include wool, mohair, fur, and silk. Are used to make warm and attractive clothing and other fabric items such as rugs and blankets. • Sheep produce wool. • Cashmere and alpaca are variations of wool. • Furs are obtained from several animals such as rabbits and minks. The hides from cattle may be used for making leather. • Silkworms produce silk when making cocoons. • Silk is the strongest animal fiber.
Plant Fibers • Several fibers are produced from plants: cotton, flax, hemp, jute and sisal. • Cotton is the most important. Make clothing, towels, furniture, and others. • Flax comes from the stems of flax plants. It is made into linen. • Hemp, jute, and sisal are coarse fibers. They are used to make twine, cords, and ropes. • Research on kenaf has emerged as potential fiber.
Manufactured and mineral fibers • Known as synthetic or human-made. • Synthetic fibers come from raw materials such as petroleum. • Some manufactured fibers are made from wood.
Shelter • A shelter is a building used by humans for housing. • Forestry is a large and specialized area of plant production. • Trees are important in the environment. • Planted in cities because of beauty and cooling effects(urban forestry)
Producing for the consumer • A goal of agriscience is to make food and fiber more appealing and readily available. • A consumer is a person who buys goods and services. • Consumers eat food, wear clothing, and live in housing. They also have opinions about what they will eat and wear, and how they will be housed. These opinions dictate what is produced. • A demand is a desire for a good or service and the ability to buy. Price is important.
Consumer Preferences • Standard of living, customs, and climate are the major factors in consumer choice. • Standard of living is the level of choice about both essential and nonessential goods and services that people can make based on what they can afford. • Income and education promote a higher standard of living. • People who make more money tend to eat more beef, seafood, and other higher priced foods. • Also choose higher priced clothing, housing, and other goods or services. • People in nations with better education have higher incomes and more choices. • Life expectancy, educational attainment, and adjusted real income are three important factors in establishing livability.
Customs • Customs are established ways of doing things. • People grow up eating certain foods or observing certain social behaviors and continue to follow those habits as adults. • North – may eat more potatoes and wheat bread • South – may eat more chicken, okra, and corn bread
Climate • The climate is the nature of the weather. • Temperature, precipitation, and direction and speed of wind are major factors in a climate. • Soil fertility and drainage determine land use. • People in cool climates eat more cereal grains, potatoes, and meat. • Those in warmer climates eat more fruits and vegetables.