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Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

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  1. Rift Valley University College Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Supportive Module - 1

  2. Module Description • This Module Covers: • Introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Basics of Computers • Computer data representation and numbering System • Basics of Data Communication • Computer Networking • Computer Hazards and Security Department of ICT

  3. LEARNING OUTCOMES (OBJECTIVES) • At the end of the module the learner will be able to: • Understand the constituents of Information and Communication Technologies, familiarized with computer systems and application areas of IT and, link it with the subsequent vocational training modules. Department of ICT

  4. Relationship to Unit of Competence Standards • This Module is related with all competencies found in the EOS • ICT ITA S01 0108Operate a personal computer • ICT ITA S02 0108Migrate to new technology • ICT ITA S03 0108Advice clients and provide first-level remote help desk support • ICT ITA S04 0108Protect computer hardware & application or system software • ICT ITA S105 0108Connect hardware peripherals • ICT ITA S06 0108Support system software • ICT ITA S07 0108Determine and take action client computing and network problems • ICT ITA S08 0108Implement maintenance procedures • ICT ITA S09 0108Maintain equipment and software in working order • ICT ITA S10 0108Install software applications • ICT ITA S11 0108Create technical documentations • ICT ITA S12 0108Record client support requirements • ICT ITA S13 0108Maintain inventories for equipment, software & documentation • ICT ITA S14 0108Apply problem solving techniques to routine malfunctions Department of ICT

  5. Module Contents at Glance • Introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Introduction to Information Technology • Information and Data Processing • Basics of Information Systems • Basics of Computer System • Definition, Concepts, History and evolution of Computers • Types of Computers • Characteristics of Computers • Application of Computers • Computers and Hunan Beings • The Computer System • The Computer Hardware • The Computer Software Department of ICT

  6. Module Contents at Glance • Computer Data Representation and Numbering ystem • Units of Data Representation • The Numbering System • Coding Systems (Schemes) • Basics of Data Communication • Overview of Data Communication • Components of Data Communication System • Basics Computer Networking • Concepts and Importance of Computer Networking • Types of Network • Components of Network • Network Architectures • Basics Concepts of the Internet • Basic Concepts of Intranet Versus Extranet • Network Layers, Protocols and Standards Department of ICT

  7. Module Contents at Glance • Computer Hazards and Security • Physical Computer Hazards and Security • Logical Computer Hazards and Security • Computer Ethics Department of ICT

  8. Chapter Two Part One Introducing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Department of ICT

  9. Objectives of this Chapter • After the end of these Chapter, trainees will be able to: • Define what information is • Identify the various sources of information • Explain values, importance and characteristics of valuable information • Define information technology, and identify its components and relevance • Define data and information, and the difference between them • Identify data processing operations and data processing cycles • Explain how data is organized • Explain data and information processing activities and activities Department of ICT

  10. What is Information? • Information: • is the processed data that human can understand and get knowledge out of it. • is a collection of meaningful facts and figures that can be used as a base for guidance and decision making. • is a processed fact, figure, concept, ideas, object, notion which enables you to making decision. • Information can be presented in the form of texts, graphics, audio, motion, animation, or video. Department of ICT

  11. Sources of Information • There are two types of sources of information: • Documentary Sources of information (DSI) • DSI are intentionally and properly documented or recorded sources of information in different forms for public use. • Non-Documentary Sources of information (NDSI) • NDSI are those that are not intentionally and properly documented or recorded for public use. Department of ICT

  12. Documentary Source of Information • DSI is further divided into three: • Primary Documentary Sources of Information (PDSI) • are the first published documents or records of original research and development undertakings. • are document represent unfiltered and original ideas. • can include published documents like periodicals, reports, patents, standards, dissertations, etc. • can also include unpublished documents like laboratory notebooks, memoranda, diaries, letters, internal research reports, inscription on stones, etc. • Secondary Documentary Sources of Information (SDSI) • are either compiled form or referred to the PDSI. • are documents or records produced after the PDSI. • can include documents like periodicals of some type, indexes, bibliographies, textbooks, reference books, etc. Department of ICT

  13. Documentary Source of Information • Tertiary Documentary Sources of Information (TDSI) • are refined or distilled and collected from PDSI and SDSI. • are organized information with the aim of assisting the searcher of information in the use of PDSI and SDSI. • are information which do not contain subject matter knowledge. • can include documents like books catalogue in a library, dictionaries, telephone directories, handouts, etc. Department of ICT

  14. Non-Documentary Source of Information • NDSI are a type of sources of information which are not intentionally documented and organized in order to serve actual and potential users. • NDSI are categorized into two: • Formal Non-Documentary Sources of Information (FNDSI) • are sources of information which include professional societies, industries, research organizations, universities, government departments, etc. • Informal Non-Documentary Sources of Information (INDSI) • are sources of information which include conversation with colleagues, visitors, attendance to professional meetings, Department of ICT

  15. The Value of Information • The value of information is directly related to how it helps the user or decision maker to meet individual, organizational or societal needs. • The value of information can be measured in terms of: • the time it saves to make a decision. • the increase in profit it brings to the organization or an individual. • the decrease in cost it makes to the organization or an individual. Department of ICT

  16. Characteristics of Valuable Information • To be valuable to users, information should have the following characteristics: • Accuracy – free from any kind of error • Completeness – contain all important facts and figures that are required for specific purpose • Economical – cost benefit analysis of producing information • Flexibility – using of information collected for a single reason for a variety of purposes with or without modification • Reliability – information that are dependable in decision making • Timeliness – getting the information to the recipients within the needed time • Relevance – the using of information by a person who really needing it • Accessibility – getting the information easily in the right format Department of ICT

  17. Information and Society • For any modern individuals, organizations and society, Information is: • resource • power • For information to be available: • Creation of information • Processing of information • Production of information • Content of information • Delivery of information • Using of information Department of ICT

  18. What is Technology? • Technology is a means by which human beings use their inventions, innovations and discoveries to satisfy their needs and desires. • Technology is concerned with making things happen. • Technology is a mental activity in order to produce something unusual to satisfy your needs and requirements. Department of ICT

  19. Information Technology • Information Technology (IT) is an interdisciplinary academic field that deals with the generation, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of recorded knowledge, whether in the form of text, graphics, motion, audio, or video. Department of ICT

  20. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis, there is not a universally accepted definition of ICT. • Its difficult to keep up with the changes - they happen so fast. • A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses and organizations use information. • ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. • So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. • Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. Department of ICT

  21. Components of Information Technology (IT) • IT has three main components: • Computer – is an electronic machine that can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present information to a user. • Communication Networks – is a system composed of interconnected computers, peripherals, telecommunications and other specialized devices that allow information to be moved between two remote points of communication. • Know-how – is the ability to draw on the power of IT to solve problems and to take advantage of the opportunities it creates. Department of ICT

  22. Information Service • Information service includes: • Electronic mail, electronic news, online information, bulletin boards, chat groups, and the internet. • Popular information services include CompuServe, Microsoft Network, Skype, Facebook, etc. Department of ICT

  23. Information Superhighway • Information Superhighway refers to the availability and use of advanced information services by means of a variety of high capacity data transport facilities, especially computers and computer networks. • Information Superhighway is also called Data Highway. • It is a large-scale communications network providing a variety of often interactive services, as text databases, e-mail, and audio and video materials, accessed through computers, television sets, etc. • It can also be defined as the global information and communications network that includes the Internet and other networks and switching systems such as telephone networks, cable television networks, and satellite communication networks. Department of ICT

  24. The Need for and Application of Information Technology • IT is needed and applicable in all aspects and endeavors of human life including economic, social and political. • The following are the wide application of IT in modern society. • In the home • Radio and TV broadcasting • Home video and audio systems • Home computer network • In the office • Photocopiers • Calculators • Typewriters • Fax machines • Telecommuting or virtual office • Telecommunication devices • Intranets, extranets and the internet Department of ICT

  25. The Need for and Application of Information Technology • In the industries • Computer Aided Design (CAD) • Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) • Transport and communication • Telephone networking • Rail ways and traffic lights • Air transportation systems • Education and training • CAI • Virtual schooling • Virtual university • The arts • Computer graphics • Data capturing hardware and software • Audio and video editing software Department of ICT

  26. The Need for and Application of Information Technology • Low enforcement and defence • Security cameras • Fingerprint identification devices • Face recognition devices • Computerized battle management systems • Computer guided missiles • In health • Telemedicine • Teletherapy • In general, IT is needed and applicable in: • Routine tasks of repetitive nature • Activities which require high degree of accuracy Department of ICT

  27. History and Development of Information Technology • 700-800 BC • homing pigeons • 1800’s • electric current deflects a magnetic needle, leading to the creation of the telegraph. Samuel Morse later uses a magnetic telegraph and the Morse code to keep the communication movement on track. • 1876 • the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. • 1897 • Professor Joseph John Thomson discovers the electron. • 1915 • The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) makes the first call the across country using radio. • 1939 • John Atanassoff constructs the first semi electronic digital-computing device. Department of ICT

  28. History and Development of Information Technology • 1962 • Paul Baran of the Rand Corporation develops Packet-switching network. • 1969 • the year of the Internet (ARPA.) • Between 1950 and to 1970 (+Research and Development, compute bound) • Between 1970 and 1985 (+ High value data processing) • Between 1985 and 1991 (+ Low cost PC’s) • Between 1991 and 2001 (+ Internet) • Post 2001 (+ ICT gains strategic sector status) Department of ICT

  29. The Difference Between IT and ICT • ICT stands for 'Information and Communication Technology'. • IT stands for 'Information Technology'. • The two are very similar. • The main difference is that IT is more widely used within industry, whereas ICT is applied to the academic and education side and used in places of learning, such as school, colleges and universities. • Information and communications technologies (ICT) are the computing and communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education. • SUCH ICT-RELATED ACTIVITIES INCLUDE, FOR EXAMPLE, THE USE OF: • Broadcast material or CD-ROM as sources of information in history; • Micro-computers with appropriate keyboards and other devices to teach literacy and writing; Department of ICT

  30. The Difference Between IT and ICT • Keyboards, effects and sequencers in music teaching; • Devices to facilitate communication for pupils with special needs; • Electronic toys to develop spatial awareness and psycho-motor control; • Email to support collaborative writing and sharing of resources; • Video-conferencing to support the teaching of modern foreign languages; • Internet-based research to support geographical enquiry; • Integrated learning systems (ILS) to teach basic numeracy; • Communications technology to exchange administrative and assessment data. Department of ICT

  31. Information • and • Data Processing Part Two Department of ICT

  32. Data Versus Information • What is Data? • The term data can be served both as plural and singular. However, data is plural by its nature and its singular form is datum. • Data is anything which can be observed with our five sense organs. • Data are any collection of facts. • Data can represent small items so small that individual items have no meaning on their own. • Data is an input to information processing system. • Data is something which needs to be processed before it can be turned into something useful. • Data comes in many forms - numbers, words, symbols. Data relates to transactions, events and facts. • In short, data is the raw material for information. Department of ICT

  33. Data Versus Information • What is Information? • Information is data that has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who receives it. • Information is a processed and an organized data. • Generally: • Data is defined as raw facts or observations represented by characters such as letters, numbers and other symbols. • Data takes a variety of forms including numeric, text, voice and images. • Information is defined as data that ahs been transformed into a meaningful and useful context for specific end users. • Information is a refined or processed data. Department of ICT

  34. Data Gathering • Collecting data from different sources is called data gathering. • There are different data gathering tools and techniques or methods. • Questionnaires. • Observations. • Interviews. • Panel Discussions. • Forums. • Surveys. • Reviews of performance data. • JAD Sessions. Department of ICT

  35. Methods of Data Processing • There are two types of data processing: • Manual – using brain, pen, pencil, and paper as tools. • Advantages – • Disadvantages - • Electronic (Computer) based – using electronic machines like computers. • Advantages – • Disadvantages – • There are two main fundamental ways of computer data processing. • File processing, and • Database processing. Department of ICT

  36. Data Processing Criteria • Accuracy • The input data to the processing system must be accurate. • Timeliness • The right information at the right time • Meaningfulness • The information to be produced should be meaningful to the people using it. Department of ICT

  37. Data Processing and Organization • Data processing • Consists of gathering raw data, input it, evaluating and bringing order to the data, and placing it in proper perspective so that useful information will be produced. • It is the analysis and organization of data into a more useful form. • It includes classifying, transmitting, comparing, sorting and calculating the obtained data. • Data processing is divided into two. • Database processing • Transaction processing • Data processing can be done manually or mechanically or electronically. Department of ICT

  38. The Basic Data Processing Cycle • Input • It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer can understand. • It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. • In input step, following activities can be performed. • Verification • The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required. • For example, the collected data of all B.Sc. students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. • If errors occur in collected data, data is corrected or it is collected again. • Coding • The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer. Department of ICT

  39. The Basic Data Processing Cycle • Storing • The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file. • The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing. • Processing • After completing the processing step, output is generated. • The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. • Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later use. • In output step, following activities can be performed in a systematic manner. • Some of the important activities are: • Classification • The data is classified into different groups and subgroups, so that each group or sub-group of data can be handled separately. • Storing • The data is arranged into an order so that it can be accessed very quickly as and when required. Department of ICT

  40. The Basic Data Processing Cycle • Calculations • The arithmetic operations are performed on the numeric data to get the required results. • For example, total marks of each student are calculated. • Summarizing • The data is processed to represent it in a summarized form. • It means that the summary of data is prepared for top management. • For example, the summary of the data of student is prepared to show the percentage of pass and fail student examination etc. • Output • After completing the processing step, output is generated. • The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later user. • In output step, following activities can be performed. • Retrieval • Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. • For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. • This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes. Department of ICT

  41. The Basic Data Processing Cycle • Conversion • The generated output can be converted into different forms. • For example, it can be represented into graphical form. • Communication • The generated output is sent to different places. • For example, weather forecast is prepared and. sent to different agencies and newspapers etc. where it is required. • Feedback • After generated output and performing all activities on the output, feedback about the generated output is collected. • It is very important activity It is used to improve performance of the data processing system, so that better output can be generated in future. • The output phase also involves activity through which output result is tested. • If the output result is accurate, the data processing cycle is completed. • If output result is not accurate, some of the above-mentioned steps (or all steps) are repeated again and again until the accurate result is achieved. Department of ICT

  42. The Expanded Data Processing Cycle • Origination • The process of collecting the original data, called source document. • Distribution • The distribution of the output data, called report document. • Storage • Putting data on storage devices for further processing at later date or for generating output as it was ORGANIZATION INPUT PROCESSING STORAGE OUTPUT DISTRIBUTION Department of ICT

  43. Data Processing Operations • Recording • The transfer of data onto some form or document. • The writing of data by hand or the keying in of data on a machine. • Recording is not a one-time operation. • Duplicating • Reproducing the data onto many forms or documents. • Verifying • Verification is done to eliminate transcription (typing data into a computer from a data capture form) errors. • Classifying • Grouping data into different categories. • Sorting • Arranging data in a specific order is called sorting. Department of ICT

  44. Data Processing Operations • Storing • Retaining data for further reference is called storing. • Merging • This operation takes two or more sets of data, all sets having been sorted by the same key, and puts them together to form a single sorted set of data. • Retrieving • This operation refers to finding a specific sorted data. • It takes less time if the data is sorted based on the search key. • Calculating • Arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and averaging are usually performed on numeric data at processing stage. • Summarizing and Reporting • A collection of data is condensed and certain conclusions from the data are represented in simple, clear form. Department of ICT

  45. Basics of Information System • An information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that are designed to generate information that supports the day-to-day, short-range, and long-range activities of users in an organization. • Information systems generally are classified into five categories: office information systems, transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems, and expert systems. • The following sections present each of these information systems. • Office information system (OIS) • is an information system that uses hardware, software and networks to enhance work flow and facilitate communications among employees. • An office information system, also described as office automation; employees perform tasks electronically using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually. Department of ICT

  46. Basics of Information System • With an office information system, for example, a registration department might post the class schedule on the Internet and e-mail students when the schedule is updated. In a manual system, the registration department would photocopy the schedule and mail it to each student’s house. • An office information system supports a range of business office activities such as creating and distributing graphics and/or documents, sending messages, scheduling, and accounting. • All levels of users from executive management to nonmanagement employees utilize and benefit from the features of an OIS. • The software an office information system uses to support these activities include: • word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, e-mail, Web browsers, Web page authoring, personal information management, and groupware. Department of ICT

  47. Basics of Information System • Office information systems use communications technology such as voice mail, facsimile (fax), videoconferencing, and electronic data interchange (EDI) for the electronic exchange of text, graphics, audio, and video. • An office information system also uses a variety of hardware, including computers equipped with modems, video cameras, speakers, and microphones; scanners; and fax machines. • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) • A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data generated during an organization’s day-to-day transactions. • A transaction is a business activity such as a deposit, payment, order or reservation. • Clerical staff typically perform the activities associated with transaction processing, which include the following: • Recording a business activity such as a student’s registration, a customer’s order, an employee’s timecard or a client’s payment. Department of ICT

  48. Basics of Information System • Confirming an action or triggering a response, such as printing a student’s schedule, sending a thank-you note to a customer, generating an employee’s paycheck or issuing a receipt to a client. • Maintaining data, which involves adding new data, changing existing data, or removing unwanted data. • Transaction processing systems were among the first computerized systems developed to process business data – a function originally called data processing. • Usually, the TPS computerized an existing manual system to allow for faster processing, reduced clerical costs and improved customer service. • The first transaction processing systems usually used batch processing. • With batch processing, transaction data is collected over a period of time and all transactions are processed later, as a group. • As computers became more powerful, system developers built online transaction processing systems. Department of ICT

  49. Basics of Information System • With online transaction processing (OLTP) the computer processes transactions as they are entered. • When you register for classes, your school probably uses OLTP. • The registration administrative assistant enters your desired schedule and the computer immediately prints your statement of classes. • The invoices, however, often are printed using batch processing, meaning all student invoices are printed and mailed at a later date. • Today, most transaction processing systems use online transaction processing. • Some routine processing tasks such as calculating paychecks or printing invoices, however, are performed more effectively on a batch basis. For these activities, many organizations still use batch processing techniques. Department of ICT

  50. Basics of Information System • Management Information Systems (MIS) • While computers were ideal for routine transaction processing, managers soon realized that the computers’ capability of performing rapid calculations and data comparisons could produce meaningful information for management. • Management information systems thus evolved out of transaction processing systems. • A management information system (MIS) is an information system that generates accurate, timely and organized information so managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress. • Because it generates reports on a regular basis, a management information system sometimes is called a management reporting system (MRS). • Management information systems often are integrated with transaction processing systems. Department of ICT