Positive Behavior Support: Response to Intervention University of South Florida 2009
Florida’s PBS Project • Our Mission • Increasing the capacity of Florida’s school districts to address problem behavior using positive behavior support. • What we do… • Provide training and technical assistance to districts across the state in the development and implementation of positive behavior supports at all Tiers.
Federal & State Support • Intervention of choice in IDEA 2004 • Supports NCLB • Positive Behavior for Effective Schools Act* • Florida’s EBD Rule, 2007 • Florida’s Bullying & Harassment Prevention policy, 2008 • RtI:http://www.fldoe.org/Schools/florida-reponse-to-intervention.asp • Universal (Tier 1) intervention • Evidence-based • Higher levels of PBS includes Tiers 2 & 3 • Data-based, structured problem-solving process
Three-Tiered Model of School Supports & the Problem-solving Process ACADEMIC SYSTEMS Tier 3: Comprehensive & IntensiveStudents who need individualized interventions. Tier 2: Strategic InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to the core curriculum. Tier 1: Core CurriculumAll students, including students who require curricular enhancements for acceleration. BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS Tier 3: Intensive InterventionsStudents who need individualized intervention. Tier 2: Targeted Group InterventionsStudents who need more support in addition to school-wide positive behavior program. Tier 1: Universal Interventions All students in all settings.
Core Principles of PBS • Team process • Facilitated leadership • School and district action planning • Data-based decision-making • Flexibility with fidelity of implementation • Working smarter, not harder • Emphasizing prevention, teaching and effective consequences
Behavior Referred to as PBS Academics Referred to as RtI PBS is RtI for Behavior • 3 tier system established to provide support for students struggling with behavior/academic issues • Tier 1 = School-Wide/Universal • Tier 2 = Targeted Group/Supplemental • Tier 3 = Individual/Intensive Regardless of student problem, i.e., behavior, academic or combination, schools utilize a problem solving process to assess, intervene, monitor and evaluate interventions across 3 tiers.
PBS and Response to Intervention • Tier 1 • School-Wide PBS, Classroom PBS • Universal screening • Integrity of PBS system use Tier 1: SW-PBS Classroom PBS Universal Screening • Tier 2 • Exposure to SW system • Social Skills groups • Targeted “standard” interventions • More frequent progress monitoring Problem Behavior Continues Tier 2: Targeted Groups • Tier 3 • Individual PBS • Specific, individualized interventions based on FBA • Frequent progress monitoring • Consideration of special education, alternative setting Tier 3 Individualized, Intensive Support
Problem Solving Steps Step 1: Identify the Problem What’s the problem? Step 4: Evaluate the Plan (Response to Intervention) Step 2: Analyze the Problem Why is it happening? Is it working? Step 3: Develop and Implement the Plan What do we do about it? How do we do it?
Average Referral Per Day Per Month • What patterns do you see? • What trends are apparent? • How do months compare across years? • What other info might you want?
Referrals by Location by Behavior Hallway / Breezeway
Referrals by Location by Time Hallway / Breezeway
Referrals by Location by Grade Hallway / Breezeway
Referrals by Grade from 7-8:30 a.m. Hallway / Breezeway
Step 1: Identify the Problem • Step 1: What is the Problem? • OBSERVED: Fighting in the hall first thing in the morning by 6th and 7th graders • EXPECTED: Identify desired behaviors Link to school-wide expectations and hallway rules Students will treat each other with respect (polite language, no physical interaction, stay to the right of the hallway); be prepared and safe
Step 2: Analyze the Problem • Step 2: Why is the problem happening? • EXAMPLE: The problem is occurring because no specific hallway rules, morning/arrival procedures, 6th and 7th graders have not been taught expectations, no rewards, no supervision, additional training. • Review/Gather additional information to validate hypothesis or causes • Which hallways? • Supervision in hallways? • Has there been efficient teaching of expectations/rules and procedures? • Which students?
Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan • Brainstorm intervention strategies (Link what we’ve learned during Step 2 to what we’re going to do) • Link the intervention to the data reviewed/gathered: • If _________would occur, then the problem would be reduced. • Then, vote on the intervention • Brainstorm strategies to overcome top 2 barriers identified • Develop a specific plan with delineated responsibilities • Include goals and progress monitoring plan
Brainstorm strategies related to identified causes Revise hallway rules Restructure early morning procedures Teach explicitly to 6th & 7th graders Increase rewards for expected behaviors Utilize peer mediation program Additional training and supervision in hallways Competition for greatest decrease in ODRs in the hall Survey students about hallway climate Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan
Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan • EXAMPLE: • If increased recognition of appropriate hallway behavior would occur, then the problem would be reduced. • Vote on strategies • Recognize appropriate hallway behavior • Establish goals • Teachers give out 30 “Stamps”/tokens each week for appropriate hallway behavior
Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan • Establish action steps to implement • Review revised hallway procedures plan with staff at staff meeting Tuesday (Principal) • Post new procedures and copy each teacher by Monday morning (Mr. First) • Create skit with Drama Club to run on new show starting Monday (Mrs. Ashley) • Monitor • Review data at next meeting • Review implementation steps list • Check feedback box from staff
Step 4: Evaluate the PlanIs It Working? • Progress Monitoring and Response to Intervention: • Examine data and make decisions: Ask… Did we meet the goal? Did we do what we agreed, the way agreed, for as long as we agreed? • Do we need to modify current plan or develop a new plan? • Do we need to develop a plan to maintain or fade out the intervention if it was successful? • Consider reviewing/revising problem definition and hypotheses if intervention isn’t working with the problem-solving team
Identification of Students for Tier 2 ODR data are not sufficient to identify students needing more support at Tier 2 Recommended that multiple sources of data (ODR, referrals, nominations, standardized screeners, etc.) be used to ID students. FLPBS project can provide information on standardized screeners, efficient nomination processes, and tracking systems for students.
Tier II: Behavioral Intervention/Support 1 - 5% Tier II - Assessment Behavioral Observations Intervention Data (peer group comparison) Tier II - Targeted Interventions Targeted Group Interventions Social Skills Training Small Groups Tiered Discipline Programs 10-15% 80 - 90% Tier I Assessment Tier I - Core Interventions 10 - 15% 80 - 90% 27
Core Components of Tier 2 Continuous availability, Rapid access (within 72 hr), Very low effort by teachers, Consistent with school-wide expectations, Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school, Flexible intervention based on assessment
Core Components of Tier 2 Match between the function of the problem behavior and the intervention, Adequate resources for implementation (weekly meetings, plus 10 hours a week), Student chooses to participate, and Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision-making.
Secondary Interventions Behavior Education Program/CICO Social Skills—Skillstreaming Problem-Solving, Conflict Resolution I Can Problem Solve (elementary) Prepare (secondary) Anger Management, Violence Prevention Second Step Bullying—Steps to Respect
Training Support at Tier 2 Provided by FLPBS:RtIB Project Practice with problem-solving process Practice with data-based decision-making Evaluation and use of Tier 1 and classroom supports Establishing a progress monitoring system Establishing a Tier 2 process at the school Team Decision points Tracking and communication Specific training on BEP/CICO system
Progress Monitoring FLPBS:RtIB Project provides… Progress monitoring tool for array of Tier 2 interventions, Decision rules for Tier 2, and Tracking system for communicating outcomes for all students on Tier 2 support Practical experience supporting hundreds of schools at Tier 2 implementation
Adapted from Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004) HR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th L 5th 6th BE RESPECTFUL 2 BE RESPONSIBLE 3 2 BE PREPARED Points Possible: __72___ Points Received: __55__ % of Points: __76__ Goal Achieved? Y N Daily Progress Report Name: ______Don Kincaid________________ Date: __2/1/08______ Rating Scale:3=Good day2=Mixed day1=Will try harder tomorrow GOALS: 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 3 3 2 3 Teacher Comments: I really like how… ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Parent Signature(s) and Comments: _______________________________________________
Evaluation of Tier 2 Schools can utilize the Benchmarks of Quality for Tier 2 to evaluate implementation fidelity of each Tier 2 intervention in the school Progress monitoring and tracking system can identify if Tier 2 interventions are being effective
Tier III of Behavioral Intervention/Support Tier III: Assessments FBA Progress Monitoring Graph/RtI (Eligibility Assessment) Tier III: Individualized Interventions Behavior Intervention Plan Individual CounselingSelf-Monitoring 1 - 5% 1-5% Tier II Assessments Behavioral Observations Intervention Data Gap Analysis Tier IITargeted Interventions Targeted Group Interventions Social Skills Training Small Groups 10-15% 80 - 90% Tier I Assessments Discipline Data (ODR) Benchmark Assessment Universal Screening Tier I Core Interventions School-wide Discipline Positive Behavior Supports Whole-class Interventions 10 - 15% 80 - 90% 36
Identifying Students at Tier 3 Students for whom secondary supports are not enough (poor response to intervention) Students with severe and chronic behavior High ODRs ESE services or placement High scores on screeners NOT just for students who have been identified as ESE eligible.
Components of Tier 3 Support Clear FBA and BIP process that meets the needs of all students Collaborative problem-solving approach Clear intervention goals that address problem behavior, appropriate behavior and lifestyle issues A progress monitoring system for each student and all students Decision points and data-based decisions
Components of Tier 3 Support An effective FBA process Appropriate, multi-component BIPs matched to function Contextual fit and coaching Measurements of the fidelity of intervention implementation Matching complexity of problem to differing level of Tier 3 support
Resources from FLPBS Project for Tier 3 FLPBS does not provide training to individual schools in Tier 3 because: Tier 3 supports and systems are generally provided or developed at the district level Impacting practice of Tier 3 at the school requires impacting the systems of support for Tier 3 at the district level
District Level Support for Tier 3 FLPBS Project can: Review practices and products to determine a need Identify areas of strength or need Provide evidence-based practices, forms, materials, etc. Target training and TA to those areas Consider systems changes that may promote implementation
Progress Monitoring FLPBS Project provides… Progress monitoring tool for array of Tier 3 interventions, Decision rules for Tier 3, Fidelity measure (BoQ 3) for Tier 3 supports Process for review of FBA and BIP products Tracking system for communicating outcomes for all students on Tier 3 support Practical experience supporting hundreds of students at Tier 3 implementation
Tier 1 Training • Consists of lecture, video of Florida’s implementing schools, team activities, and action planning • FREE OF CHARGE to districts • School Administrator required to participate during entire training • District Coaches trained to provide additional assistance • Ongoing technical assistance provided across year
Contact Flow Chart PBS Project Contact District Coordinator Coach Coach School PBS TEAM School PBS TEAM School PBS TEAM
Number of Schools Trained(As of December 2008) • 6 Pre-K schools • 253 Elementary schools • 116 Middle schools • 45 High schools • 49 Alternative/Center schools • 32 Other (e.g. K-8) • 501 TOTAL SCHOOLS