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Morale Studies, Motivation Theories & Personnel Research

Morale Studies, Motivation Theories & Personnel Research

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Morale Studies, Motivation Theories & Personnel Research

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  1. Morale Studies, Motivation Theories & Personnel Research Team Work by Ateet Chatuvedi - Roll No.10 Nikhil Jamnare- Roll No.19 SwatiKadam - Roll No.22 Ashvini Khandekar - Roll No.24 Nayana Premchand - Roll No.43

  2. Moral Studies

  3. What is Morale? It is a state of mind & emotions affecting the attitude & willingness to work, which in turn, affects individual & organization objective. - Theo Haimann Morale is feeling somewhat related esprit de corps, enthusiasm or Zeal. - Flippo

  4. Importance of Moral What does it do?? It affects output, the quality of a product, costs, co-operation, enthusiasm, discipline, initiative & other ingredients of success. Where does it reside?? It resides in the minds & emotions of individuals & in the reactions of their group or groups..

  5. Importance of Moral What does it affect?? It affects an employee’s or a group’s willingness to work & cooperate in the best interest’s of the individuals, groups & the organisations for which they work. Whom does it affect?? It affects the employees & executives in their interactions. Ultimately, it affects the consumers & the community.

  6. Measurement of Morale Morale is an intangible & subjective concept it cannot be directly measured or evaluated. A properly designed programme has, therefore, to be utilized to test the morale of individuals in an organization.

  7. Measures of Morale : General Meetings Observation Questionnaires Company records & Reports. Speaking with departing personnel Outside Consultants

  8. Indicators of Low Morale Work place conflicts. Absenteeism/ Lateness Stress & Frustration Trouble with the supervisor. Performance shortcomings. Lack of pride in work. Decrease in productivity High labour turnover.

  9. Improving Morale Research indicates that the number one cause of conflict & low morale at work is the way the people communicate with each other. Communicate! is a program of continuous morale boosting communication & education for all employees. “There’s only one way to know how good morale really is in your company ask the people who work there.”

  10. Ways of improving morale : Effective Communication Review meetings. Counseling. Job satisfaction. Active participation. Friendly atmosphere.

  11. Effective tools for Morale building Motivation Team building Make time for people Provide regular feedback Training & Development Provide Leadership

  12. Motivation

  13. Needs

  14. IGNITE THE SPARK WITHIN What is missing is the “SPARK” A Spark Called “Motivation” What is Motivation ? Motivation is the process by which Inner Striving Condition which activates or moves individual into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically. “Motivation is the art of stimulating someone or oneself to take desired course of action”. “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals”.

  15. Motivation is the driving force in our livesIt Comes from a desire to succeed. Without success there is little pride in life. No enjoyment or excitement at work or at home Difference between Inspiration & Motivation InspirationMotivation Inspiration is Motivation is “Change in thinking” “Change in Action”

  16. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Level of hierarchy of Needs - from lowest to highest Extrinsic Factors Intrinsic Factors Upper Level 5 4 Growth Esteem Needs 3 Self Growth by carrier Plans, Talent, Knowledge, Power, Job Responsibility 2 Social Needs Prestige, Self respect, Confidence, Courage, Autonomy, Achievement, Appreciation, Recognition 1 Love & Affections, Friendship, Public relations, Status or Goodwill Safety Needs Physiological Needs Protection against Danger, Threats or Harm, Job Security Food, Shelter, Clothing & Sex Lower level

  17. Assumptions of Maslow’s Theory Man is a wanting animal Satisfied needs looses its capacity Man’s needs have a hierarchy

  18. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Two Factors Motivation Model Goal oriented Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors Dissatisfiers Satisfiers Company Policy, Administration, Salary, Job Security, Group relations status, Working Conditions, Communication. Achievements, Advancements, Recognition, Growth Opportunities, Power & Work itself. Positive – Y Theory Employee Negative – X Theory

  19. Motivational Factors Job Enlargement: Challenging by increasing expected output Adding other tasks to the job Rotating the assignments Job Enrichment: Removing some controls with retaining accountability Increasing Accountability Granting additional authority Introducing new and more difficult tasks not handled previously Specific and Specialised tasks to make experts

  20. Douglas McGregor -Theory X and Theory Y Traditional Theory or Theory ‘X’ Assumptions of ‘X’-Theory • Workers are not interested to work • Fear alone can force action • Workers are passive as they prefer security • Money alone can make people work • Labour only a factor of production • Authority synonymous with control • Lack of ambition, dislikes responsibility • Self centered and indifferent to organizational needs.

  21. Modern Theory or Theory ‘Y’ Assumptions of ‘Y’ Theory • Work is reward in itself • Inherent sense of responsibility • Recognition Financial Reward • Decision making ability not the monopoly of a few • Democratic nature

  22. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs - The need for Achievement- The need for Application- The need for Power

  23. Characteristics

  24. Conclusion • Human beings are difficult to research and it is difficult to say which • theory of motivation stands completely valid and acceptable. • Motivating employees is an important role for managers. • Motivation and job satisfaction are interrelated.

  25. Personnel Research

  26. Research & it’s Characteristics Research is the careful, diligent and exhaustive investigation of a subject matter which has as its aim the advancement of mankind’s knowledge. It is purposive It is objective It is systematic It is conducted to verify or disapprove Its supplements existing knowledge

  27. Meaning of Personnel Research According to Michael J. Jucius, “Personnel research is the task of searching for and analyzing facts to understand how personnel problems may be solved or principles governing their solutions derived.” Personnel research is an effective mean by which we can be able to know all about the personnel. Through the personnel research, we know some very much important information which is essentially needed in providing data for making organizational decision so that the organization can achieve its goals.

  28. Why personnel research? Personnel Managers have started to use research findings to solve human problems and to improve management practices. Most managers now rely on research findings for such problems as absenteeism, motivation, wages and attitudes of employees towards their jobs and organizations : To build upon existing knowledge Appraisal of proposed programmes and activities Evaluation of current and new policies and practices Anticipation of personnel problems

  29. Types of Personnel Research • Descriptive research To satisfy need of management for information about the personnel situation in its company and in competing companies • Behavioural research Addresses the deeper questions about employees’ behaviour

  30. Functions of Personnel Research • Providing information • Providing security • Belonging needs • Esteem and recognition needs • Self-actualization needs

  31. Research has the following advantages: • To measure and evaluate present conditions • To predict future conditions, events and behavioral patterns • To evaluate the effects and results of current policies, programmed and practices • To provide an objective basis for revision of current policies, programmed and practices • To appraise proposed policies, programmed and activities • To keep management abreast of its competitors by replacing old products by new products, old techniques by new techniques & old organizational practices by new organizational practices. • To discover ways and means of strengthening the abilities • and attitudes of employees at a good or a high level and • on a continuing basis.

  32. Methods & Tools of Personnel Research Research is a selection of facts on a specific problem and a search for trends and patterns that will help in solving this problem. We will briefly explain five approaches to Personnel Research : Case Studies Historical studies Survey Research Exploratory studies Experimental studies

  33. Case Studies : Case studies investigate a specific problem of an organization or of an individual in an organization. Case studies identify and establish problems, objectives and alternative courses of action. Having evaluated the alternatives they choose the most feasible action plan to solve the problem. e.g. - Dayaland Sharma’s Strike of Supervisory staff in SBI (June 1969) Historical Studies: Historical Studies are used to tracethe development of problems in order to understand them and isolate possible causative factor. The essence of historical studies is their systematic investigation on a time span or longitudinal dimensions.

  34. Survey Research : Itis used for problems requiring a systematic collection of data from a population or a representative sample of population through person contact. In addition this method requires a considerable investment of manpower and time. Exploratory Studies : It emphasizes the discovery of ideas and insights in achieving new or greater insights in order to formulate the precise problem or develop hypothesis. They are very useful in formulating hypothesis for subsequent tests. They provide sufficient flexibility in information collection and are less demanding in terms of time and cost.

  35. Experimental Studies :It consists of investigating the effect of one condition on behavior, attitudes, opinions, etc., while controlling others to establish a casual relationship between any two variables, conditions, or situations. It helps in isolating a single variable that influences a phenomenon thus making its occurrence more predictable and controllable. It is extremely useful in understanding industrial behavior.

  36. Process of Personnel Research • Statement of Purpose :The researcher must point out what he proposes to do and why and how the research could be useful. The statement of purpose should also point out that given the problem or alternatively that the purpose could not have been achieved without carrying on this research. • Statement of Problem :The most important step in personnel research is to state the problem concretely and explicitly. Once the problem is clearly identified the next step is to develop the hypothesis of the suggested answers. • Statement of Method and procedure :Method and procedure will differ depending upon the nature of research problems and hypothesis. An important part in this section is the identification and selection of a sample group. The researcher also has to mention what is dependent and independent variables are.

  37. Statement of Results : Results based on information collected refer to the relationship of dependent- independent variable. A clear statement concerning the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is the key function of results. Application of statistics quantifies the data, facilitates analysis and summarizes the data to permit generalization. Statement of Analysis and Implications: The personnel researcher must visualize the implications of the result and utilize them for policy formulation and decision-making.The result should not be narrowly viewed to find only the answer to the problem faced. It should also be seen in a larger perspective which may support a theory or a conceptual framework.

  38. THANK YOU 