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History of Photography

History of Photography

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History of Photography

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  1. History of Photography

  2. NAME In creating your PowerPoint Presentation you have been marked on: 1. Your depth of research 2. Your technical ability to create a PowerPoint Presentation. 3. Your ability to create a visually engaging experience Marks for Part One = / 130 = /20 Marks for Part Two = /20 Technical competencies= /5 (Please tell me if I have missed any of these!) You were asked to- -include an image for each slide. -Consider carefully such things as the background colour of the slide, the colour and style of the font of your text. -insert music. √ -use transitions carefully chosen to enhance your presentation. √ -to use some custom animations carefully chosen to enhance your presentation. √ -to insert at least one hyperlink to a relevant website. √ -to insert at least one YouTube clip. √ You HAD to use your own words to answer the questions. YOU LOST MARKS IF YOU COPIED & PASTED! TOTAL = /45

  3. The word photography is based on the Greek photos - "light“,and graphé - "drawing", thus we have - "drawing with light”. Countess of Castiglione Pierre Louis Pierson c. 1861-7 During the first 140 years of photography, the  process of capturing light bouncing from objects surrounding us, remained essentially unchanged - light-sensitive materials were exposed to light in order to record an image.

  4. Photography saw many different camera designs and configurations – the early heavy-plate cameras were replaced by smaller box cameras, which would eventually lead to the modern single-lens reflex design. 1900-1920 Film: Plates

  5. In late 1975, Eastman Kodak engineer Steven Sasson made an exposure using the world’s first-known digital camera. And now in 2010 - Canon has announced it has successfully developed an APS-H-size CMOS sensor that delivers an image resolution of approximately 120 megapixels (13,280x9184 pixels) This is 12,000 times the resolution of the prototype Kodak of 1975 which captured a black-and-white image, with a resolution of .01 megapixels (10,000 pixels). Steve Sasson holding the first digital camera

  6. “Hipstamatic is a digital photography application for the Apple iPhone sold by Synthetic Corporation. It uses the iPhone's camera to allow the user to shoot square photographs, to which it applies a number of software filters to make the images look as though they were taken with an antique film camera. The user can choose among a number of effects which are presented in the application as simulated lenses, films and flashes.” The Last Day of 2009, it Snowed in NY - taken with a 3G iPhone using Hipstamatic app iPhone John S lens + BlacKeys B+W film styles, cropped frame

  7. But here’s a clue as to the main difference: Instagram was just sold for $1 billion while Hipstamatic is laying off its staff. So why is one app so much more successful than the other? Are their filters better than Hipstamatic’s? No. It’s because Instagram isn’t about the filters, it’s about the social platform. Yes, it has filters, in a slightly different way to Hipstamatic, but they account for the tiniest fraction (if at all) of that $1 billion valuation. And most Instagramers don’t bother with the Instagram filters once they have discovered the universe of other photography apps available. They just use Instagram as their photo showing platform.

  8. Now let’s go back to the beginning and look at the history of photography.

  9. It had long been known how to project an image onto a surface. If one placed an object in front of a small hole, later a lens, outside a darkened room without windows, light rays would reflect off the object, through the hole, and create a reversed image on the opposite wall. But it wasn’t until 1826 that Nicephore Niepce invented a method of retaining this image forever.

  10. Camera obscura ( means dark room) In 1646, Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) described a camera obscura which consisted of an outer shell with lenses in the centre of each wall, and an inner shell containing transparent paper for drawing. The artist would enter by a trapdoor. Trap door

  11. A typical portable camera obscura at the beginning of the 19th century incorporating a mirror (a), which reflects the image from the lens (b) onto a glass plate (c) which holds a sheet of paper on which the image is being traced.

  12. 17th century: Portable camera obscuras were frequently used by artists to help draw images. But it wasn’t until 1827 that Nicephore Niépce invented a method of retaining this image forever.

  13. Click on the youtube site below to see Abe Morel creating a camera obscura Camera Obscura Click on the official Abe Morel website below to see more Morel photographs [PDF] PDF; 2.7mb - Abelardo Morell - Official Website

  14. In 1725 the German professor J. Schulze mixed chalk, nitric acid and silver in a flask. He noticed darkening on side of the flask exposed to sunlight. He had accidentally created the first photo-sensitive compound. (Refer to page106 Photography Production and Appreciation)

  15. 1800: Thomas Wedgwood made "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate. The resulting images deteriorated rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles.

  16. In 1827 Nicéphore Niépce (pronounced Nee-ps) made the world’s oldest existing photograph by exposing a tin plate coated with a light-sensitive varnish inside a camera obscura for 8 hours. (See page 106,Photography Production and Appreciation) click on the website below to see more Nicephore Niepce's House Museum - History of Photography

  17. 1827: Niépce created the first permanent photographic image. View from Niepce’s Window at Le Gras.

  18. A building is on the left, a tree a third in from the left, and a barn immediately in front. The exposure lasted eight hours, so the sun had time to move from east to west, appearing to shine on both sides of the building.

  19. Niépce called his images heliographs (sun drawings).

  20. Prior to the invention of photography, all portraits had to be meticulously painted. Napoleon on his Imperial Throne by Ingres (1780–1867), painted in 1806.

  21. 1834: Henry Fox Talbot created permanent (negative) images using paper coated with salt and silver compound fixed with salt water. “Talbot then placed this negative image over a sheet of prepared paper and exposed it to light, producing a positive image on the second sheet of paper.” (See page 107,Photography Production and Appreciation)

  22. Talbot had thus invented the process of printing positive images from negative exposures – this process eventually took over from the daguerreotype and is the direct predecessor of modern analogue photography. Talbot called his imges Calotypes. This is a calotype taken by Talbot in 1853

  23. Woman 1844 by Antoine Francoise Jena Claudet A salted paper print from a calotype negative

  24. 1837: Louis Daguerre created images on silver-plated copper, and "developed" them with warmed mercury. Daguerre was awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use the Daguerreotype process.

  25. One of Daguerre’s first views of Paris. At first, exposure times of 15 minutes in bright sunlight were needed but this was later reduced to between 10 and 60 seconds.

  26.  An exposure of ten to sixty seconds (or more) in the camera obscura produced no visible change on the plate. The plate was then exposed to the vapor from heated mercury and an image would emerge. The plate was fixed by washing it in a very strong solution of common salt (Sodium Chloride.) This process produced a positive image on a metal support. The image could not be reproduced. Richard Beard's daguerreotype studio at Parliament Street, Westminster, 1843.

  27. The daguerreotype was made public in Europe in 1839 and the technology quickly spread to other countries. The daguerreotype was the first practical and commercial photographic process. Daguerreotypes were fragile, expensive to produce and exuded a magical quality. Daguerreotype of a "Chinese woman," identified as Miss Pwan Ye Kooc. 1850s Lorenzo G. Chase, photographer

  28. The surfaces were extremely delicate, which is why they are often found housed under glass in a case. The image was reversed laterally, the sitter seeing himself as he did when looking at a mirror. (Sometimes the camera lens was equipped with a mirror to correct this). The chemicals used (bromine and chlorine fumes and hot mercury) were highly toxic;

  29. Exposure times were over 60 seconds, so this little girl, her pony and servant, were required to stay as still as possible while the image was taken Unknown photographer Portrait of a European child with Indian servant c. 1850 India half-plate daguerreotype collection: Jane and Howard Ricketts, London

  30. "People were afraid at first to look for any length of time at (the daguerrotypes). They were embarrassed by the clarity of these figures and believed that the little, tiny faces of the people in the pictures could see out at them, so amazing did the unaccustomed detail and the unaccustomed truth to nature of the first daguerreotypes appear to everyone" click on the website below to see more A History of Photography, by Robert Leggat: The DAGUERREOTYPE Mother and Daughter with Silhouette

  31. 1851: Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, improved photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion (nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcohol) and chemicals on sheets of glass.

  32. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper than daguerreotypes and the negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions. Hever Castle, Kent by Frederick Scott Archer c1849 Glass Positive http://www.frederickscottarcher.com/Blog/

  33. A portable photography studio in 19th century Ireland. The wet collodion process sometimes gave rise to portable darkrooms, as photographic images needed to be developed while the plate was still wet.

  34. click on the website below to see more THE BIG CAMERA WEB PAGE

  35. The 1850s saw a new photographic system with a glass negative printed onto albumen (egg white) coated paper. This advance allowed a more sharply detailed image. Felice Beato’s photographs of the Second Opium War (1856–1860) , fought in China between Britain and China, are the first to document a military campaign as it unfolded. The Chinese soldiers appear to have just fallen, however Beato did gather and move bodies at the scene. He was well aware of the audience in Britain where his images were used to justify the Opium Wars. Felice Beato (1834- 1907) Interior of the English entrance to the North Fort on 21 August 1860 1860 China albumen silver photograph National Gallery of Australia

  36. 1853: Nada (Felix Toumachon) opens his portrait studio in Paris

  37. NadarSarah Bernhardt1859

  38. NadarSarah Bernhardt1865

  39. Julia Cameron (1815-1879) is one of the first great female photographers. She was born in Calcutta (Kolkata) and educated in France. She settled in England where she established a career as an art photographer in the 1860s and 70s, before returning to Ceylon. Annie 1864

  40. Cameron‘s work was celebrated for its soft-focus and atmospheric lighting. Her work has been compared to that of the painters and artists of the Pre-Raphaelite movement - among whom she was numbered as a friend and colleague. A painted portrait of Julia Margaret Cameron by George Frederic Watts

  41. Go to the web page below and “start the tour” on Julia Margaret Cameron. The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty by Julia Margaret Cameron

  42. Cameron was largely self-taught after being given a camera as a gift when she was in her late forties. Cameron’s images were created as works of art rather than as sharply focused documentary records. She liked to dress people up and pose them to illustrate poetic or biblical themes with a psychological dimension. Alice Liddell as a Young Woman Julia Margaret Cameron

  43. The girls in this image are Cameron’s servants who are represented as serving girls in biblical stories. This photograph catered to a growing interest in Europe of images of the exotic East. Julia Margaret Cameron (India 1815- Sri Lanka 1879) Portrait of two Tamil girls, Kalutara c. 1876 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) albumen silver photograph collection: Jane and Howard Ricketts, London

  44. 1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US. 3 million tintypes had been produced by the mid 1800s

  45. 1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff (mostly staff) covers the American Civil War, making 7000 negatives

  46. 1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods for colour photography. A view of Agen with St.Caprais cathedral, France in 1877 by Louis Ducos du Hauron, Heliochrome (bichromate process) 16.5x22.6 cm.

  47. 1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the "dry plate" process.

  48. 1877: Eadweard Muybridge settles the bet based on the question: "do a horse's four hooves ever leave the ground at once" bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced photography of Leland Stanford's horse.