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Introduction to Exodus

Introduction to Exodus

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Introduction to Exodus

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  1. Introduction to Exodus 19 August 2012

  2. What is Exodus? Meanings: • “departure” • “out-going” From what? • Egypt • Slavery

  3. Who wrote Exodus? • Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible • These have different names: • The Torah • TheFive Books of Moses • ThePentateuch (Greek for "five containers," which refers to the scroll cases in which books were being kept.)

  4. The Pentateuch Genesis – traditions of the origins of mankind and the Hebrew race Exodus – history of Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage and their establishment as a nation at Mt. Sinai (when the Law was given) Leviticus – more laws to govern the nation

  5. The Pentateuch Numbers – 1st census and genealogy of Israel – 12 spies sent out scout the land – unbelief at Kadesh Barnea that caused 40 years of wandering – Balaam will not curse Israel – Israel curses itself thru idolatry – 2nd census Deuteronomy – a series of sermons by Moses shortly before he died and before Israel went into Canaan to take the land

  6. When did Moses write the Pentateuch? • During Israel’s 40 yearsof wandering in the desert • Probably toward the end of his life

  7. Pentateuch Time Period • About 2400 years • From creation(about 3975 B.C., according to the genealogies given.) • Until the time of Moses’ death

  8. When was the Exodus? • The further back in time, the less certain we can be of the dates of events. • Thus, the safest way to date the Exodus is to go backward from more certain dates to less certain dates. • The best reference date is the beginning of the construction of Solomon’s temple

  9. When was the Exodus? And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD. – 1Kings 6:1

  10. When was the Exodus? • If the construction of Solomon’s temple began in around 1000 BC (rough estimate), then the Exodus was around 1500 BC (1000+480, rounded up) • This was about 3500 years ago • Note: Some people say that Planet X, a.k.a. Nibiru or Gabriel’s Fist, also last passed near the earth around this time and is due to come again soon.

  11. Genesis Outline • Gen. 1:1 - 11:9 • Beginning of the human race • About 3975 – 1967 B.C. • About 2000 years • Gen. 11:10 - 50:26 • Beginning of the Hebrew race • About 1967 – 1606 B.C. • About 360 years

  12. Exodus Outline • Ex. 1 - Growth and slavery of God’s people • Ex. 2-4 - Preparation of God’s deliverer, Moses • Ex. 5-12 - 10 plagues, 1st Passover & the exodus • Ex. 13-18 - Journey from Egypt to Mt. Sinai • Ex. 19-31 - Mosaic Law given to a new nation • Ex. 32 - Impatience and idolatry (golden calf) • Ex. 33-34 - Regiving of the Law on Mt. Sinai • Ex. 35-40 - Construction of the tabernacle & Making of ritual objects

  13. Clarification on “430 Years” Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Eqyptwas 430 years.– Ex. 12:40 NIV(based on Masoretic Hebrew text) Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, [was] four hundred and thirty years. – Ex. 12:40 KJV (based on Masoretic Hebrew text)

  14. Clarification on “430 Years” And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan, was four hundred and thirty years. – Ex. 12:40 Brenton(based on Septuagint Greek text)

  15. Clarification on “430 Years” And this I say, [that] the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. – Gal 3:17 KJV

  16. Clarification on “430 Years” • What we learn from Paul in Galatians 3:17 • The 430 years was the time span between two important covenants: • God’s covenant with Abraham and they which are of faith (a promise of righteousness) • God’s covenant with Israel (Mosaic Law for regulating the nation until Christ fulfilled it)

  17. Clarification on “430 Years” What we learn from Paul in Galatians 3:17 The 430 years included the time in both Canaan and in Egypt. When in doubt about the Old Testament, see what the New Testament says. For serious Bible study, do not rely on the NIV translation. It is an ecumenical work that has completely removed 17 verses and 64,576 words. For more info, see

  18. Who was with Jacob?(Gen. 46:8-27) • 12 sons • 1 daughter • 55 grandsons • 1 granddaughter • 3 of Jacob’s wives • Jacob’s sons’ wives • Jacob’s grandsons’ wives • Perhaps some slaves Total 70 persons, including Jacob, but not including all the wives and slaves, who were either Canaanite or Egyptian

  19. Who was with Moses?(Num. 1:1-46) • 603,550 men 20 years old and above who were able to go to war from 11 tribes • An unknown number of Levites • An unknown number of women & children • An unknown number of old men • An unknown number of slaves • An unknown number of Egyptian converts Total = 2 million to 6 million

  20. Exodus Outline • Ex. 1 • Growth and slavery of God’s people, Israel • From about 1606 (death of Joseph) • To 1542 B.C. • About 64 years (2 generations) • Ex. 2-4 • Preparation of God’s deliverer, Moses • About 1542 – 1462 B.C • About 80 years (2 generations)

  21. Exodus Outline • Ex. 5-12 • 10 plagues, 1st Passover and the exodus • About 1462 B.C. • Ex. 13-18 • Journey from Egypt to Mt. Sinai • A 3 month journey – in 1462 B.C.

  22. Exodus Outline • Ex. 19-31 • The Mosaic Law given on Mt. Sinai • The beginning a new nation, Israel • Ex. 32 • Impatience and idolatry (golden calf) • God decided to kill all of Israel • Moses asks God to change His mind • Levites kill all the idolaters

  23. Exodus Outline • Ex. 33-34 • Regiving of the Law on Mt. Sinai • Ex. 35-40 • Moses instructs Israel • Tabernacle constructed • Priestly robes and other ritual objects made

  24. Bible Lands Overview Bible Lands Overview

  25. Bible Lands Overview

  26. Joseph’s Journey to Egypt Joseph’s Journey to Egypt Canaan Mediterranean Sea Joseph sold to caravan Nile Delta Potiphar & Pharaoh Nile Sinai Egypt ©

  27. Joseph’s Family to Goshen Joseph’s Family’s Journey to Goshen Due to the Famine Fertile Nile Delta Canaan Egypt ©

  28. Route of Exodus 1 Route of the Exodus

  29. Route of Exodus 2 Route of the Exodus

  30. Route of Exodus 3 13km Underwater land bridge

  31. Approach through valley Egyptian Chariot Wheel Approach through valleyto the sea

  32. Trapped Egyptian Chariot Wheel Why Israel felt trapped by the sea

  33. Gulf of Aqaba • About 1,500 meters deep for most of its length • Has a steep 45 degree slope to the bottom. Gulf of Aqaba

  34. 13km underwater land bridge • About 900 meters wide by 13 km long • 300 meters deep at the deepest point • Has a gentle slope of about 6 degrees to bottom Underwater bridge 1

  35. Underwater bridge 2 13km underwater land bridge

  36. Underwater bridge 2 13km underwater land bridge

  37. Water stayed back How did the waters stay back? When Moses raised his rod over the sea and God caused a strong east wind to blow, perhaps what happened was that the water quickly froze into a thick mass of ice on either side of what became a channel or trough over this 13 km landbridge. Egyptian Chariot Wheel

  38. Diving Diving in search of chariot remains

  39. Chariot Wheel 1 Found under water on the land bridge

  40. Chariot Wheel 2 Egyptian chariot wheels with axle

  41. Chariot Wheel 3

  42. King Tut chariot Chariot from King Tut’s Tomb

  43. Mount Sinai Mount Sinai

  44. Exodus Themes • Redemption • Deliverance • Birth of Israel as and nation • Falsehood of idolatry • Conditional Mosaic covenant

  45. Redemption and Deliverance Therefore tell the children of Israel, ‘I am Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments. - Ex. 6:6

  46. Redemption and Deliverance • Redemption – accomplished through the blood of the passover lamb • Deliverance – accomplished through the power of God

  47. Birth of Israel as a nation • Formalized at Mount Sinai when the Law given • Every nations needs a law to govern its people • Israel is the only nation in the history of the world to receive its law directly from God • Most countries today base their laws on the Mosiac civil law

  48. Falsehood of Idolatry • Most of the 10 plagues made one or more Egyptian gods lose face • This helped both Israelites and Egyptians see that Jehovah was the one true God • Even some Egyptians believed in Jehovah • Golden calf incident in Ex. 32

  49. Plagues attack on gods PlagueEgyptian god attacked Nile turned Khnum: guardian of the Nile to blood Hapi: spirit of the Nile Frogs Heqt: frog god Plague on cattle Hathor: cow god Apis: bull of god Ptah Mnevis: sacred bull

  50. Plagues attack on gods Plague Egyptian god attacked Hail Nut: sky goddess Isis: goddess of life Seth: protector of crops Locusts Isis: goddess of life Seth: protector of crops