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Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan. PowerPoint Presentation
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Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan.

Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan.

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Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan.

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  1. Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan.E. Weinroth, M. Luria, A. Ben-Nun, C. Emery, J. Kaplan, M. Pelegand Y. MahrerSeagram Center for Soil and Water Sciences Faculty of AgricultureThe Hebrew University Rehovot 76100 Israel

  2. Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan. Project objectives: • To study, over time, the transport of polluted air masses and the chemical reactions occurring within: • To quantify the effects of the different emission sources on the ozone peak in the study area

  3. Model Simulations Of Ozone Formation Over Israel, The West Bank And Jordan. Lecture Structure: • Emission Inventory for Israel • Weather Conditions at Study Area • RAMS • CAMx • Model results versus measurements • Various emission scenarios • Conclusions • Acknowledgments

  4. Emission Inventory for Israel 1997- 8 • Large Stationary (point) sources • Medium Stationary (point) sources • Small Stationary (area) sources • Solvents (area) sources • Biogenic Stationary (area) sources • Mobile (area) sources, both ground based and aerial

  5. LARGE STATIONARY (POINT) SOURCES These sources account for over 58% of total fuel consumption.

  6. MEDIUM STATIONARY (POINT) SOURCES • Plants which Monitor Emissions 100 plants in this category • Plants which report Fuel Consumption Approx 400 plants in this category • These sources account for over 6.6% of total fuel consumption.

  7. SMALL STATIONARY (AREA) SOURCES • These sources account for 12.2% of total fuel consumption.

  8. Solvents • Road asphalt VOC. • Solvents in urban and industrial areas: paint, aerosol products, household products, adhesives (industrial and non industrial), moth control, space deodorant - distributed by population density.

  9. Vegetation • Biogenic sources which emit the pollutants Isoprene and Monoterpene (VOC estimated according to Winer et al 1992; Benjamin et al 1996, 1997, 1998).

  10. Land-use map

  11. MOBILE (AREA) SOURCES • The emissions from mobile sources were derived from EMME/2 transportation model. • This model utilizes an emission-vehicle speed curve, derived from measurements taken in tunnels • Jerusalem (Yavin, 1998) • Haifa (Tratakovsky, 1997) • Fort Mc-Henry (Pierson, 1996)

  12. Emission Inventory Results

  13. Weather Conditions at Study Area • The episodes of elevated ozone concentration were found to fall into the “shallow Persian trough “ synoptic category. • Such synoptic episodes occur mainly at the beginning of summer but can occasionally appear at the middle or the end of summer. • This synoptic pattern features stagnation conditions that evolve as a result of weak pressure gradient winds. • A shallow mixed layer capped by subsiding warm and dry air causes a poorly ventilated mixed layer.

  14. RAMS Aspects • RAMS 3bv • Non hydrostatic mesoscale mode. • 3 nested grids. • The simulations were initialized and updated every 6h with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data fields. • Topography was obtained from the GTOPO30 project, horizontal grid spacing of 30 seconds (approx 1 km2) and with local land-use and DTM (25X25 m2) for the second and third grids. • The meteorological fields produced by RAMS were used as input to drive CAMx.

  15. 900 Km 270 Km 180 Km 900Km 360 Km 270 Km Cell 20X20 Km2 Cell 5X5 Km2 Cell 1.25X1.25Km2

  16. 07:00 1.8.97 7.8.97 5 m/s

  17. 13:00 1.8.97 7.8.97 5 m/s

  18. 19:00 1.8.97 7.8.97 5 m/s

  19. CAMx Aspects • CAMx 3.10 • Map projection Polar Stereographic • Grid 270X370 Km2, cell 5X5 Km2 • Transport algorithm: area preserving flux form advection solver Bott(1989). • CBM-IV Carbon Bond Mechanism. Using the CMC fast solver. • “Plume-in-grid” sub model used for the main stationary sources. Maturity parameters 2500m or 12h.

  20. Camx Results vs Airborne Measurements מקרא O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 15:00 1.8.97 14:00 7.8.97

  21. Camx Results vs Airborne Measurements מקרא O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 CAMx model Flight Path Jerusalem Jerusalem 1.8.97 15:00

  22. Camx Results vs Airborne Measurements מקרא O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 CAMx model Flight Path Jerusalem Jerusalem 7.8.97 14:00

  23. Camx Results vs Measurements

  24. Diurnal behavior - ozone concentration Camx Results vs. Measurements תחנת ניטור אשקלון תחנת ניטור מודיעין תחנת ניטור קריית גת תחנת ניטור המעפיל

  25. 8 Emission Input Scenarios • All emission sources • All Industry sources • Main (large) Industry sources • Medium and small (low) industry • Without Industry = Vehicles, Solvents & Vegetation • Vehicles only • Without vehicles = All Industry, Solvents & Vegetation • Without emissions (initial and boundary conditions)

  26. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 All emission sources 1.8.97 15:00

  27. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 All industry sources 1.8.97 15:00

  28. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Large industry sources 1.8.97 15:00

  29. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Low industry sources 1.8.97 15:00

  30. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Without emission sources 1.8.97 15:00

  31. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Without industry sources 1.8.97 15:00

  32. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Vehicle sources 1.8.97 15:00

  33. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Without vehicle sources 1.8.97 15:00

  34. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 All industry sources 1.8.97 15:00

  35. Legend O3 ppb 0 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-95 95-105 105-120 Without emission sources 1.8.97 15:00

  36. Comparison of Ozone Peak for all Scenarios 1.8.97

  37. Comparison of Ozone Peak for all Scenarios 7.8.97

  38. Comparison of Ozone Peak for all Scenarios in % (discounting initial 45 ppb)

  39. השוואה בין המקורות השונים

  40. Factor Separationcontribution of different sources to formation of ozone

  41. The Relative Contribution to the Daily Ozone Peak of “Transportation” and “Without Transportation”in % (discounting initial 45 ppb)

  42. The Relative Contribution to the Daily Ozone Peak of “All Industry” and “Without Industry”in % (discounting initial 45 ppb)