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  1. mas Simon Lynch s.c.lynch@tees.ac.uk

  2. intro the basics agent types • small scale (eg: NetLogo) • generic (eg: Jade, Boris…) • BDI (2APL, Jason, Goal…) • (BOID, BOID+N, ??)

  3. small scale agents theoretical basis uses & limitations communication deliberation

  4. small scale agents – examples 1 moths • environmental • reactive • non-communicative • vants • environmental • non-communicative • complex / emergence • some agent-agent interaction

  5. small scale agents – examples 2 fox & hounds • reactive • interactive • non-communicative

  6. small scale agents – examples 3 ant packs • simple comms (phone a friend) • some deliberation • social / independent? • lone –> group –> swarm

  7. small scale agents – examples 4 path building • simple comms (broadcast) • more deliberation • social / collaborative? • mine clearance • simple comms (phone a cleaner) • deliberative • collaborative

  8. generic agents eg... • Jade • Boris ...see Boris intro uses... middleware, systems architectures, resource allocation, brokering, mixed-metaphor agency, etc, etc

  9. BDI agents BDI = Beliefs, Desires, Intentions - what?? erm... informational, motivational & deliberative states -what?? ok... assumed info about the world (B) main objectives (D) plan of things to achieve (I)

  10. BDI agents beliefs vs facts desires –> goals –> plans plans –> intentions –> goals agent beliefs rules run time goal stack

  11. 2APL: bomb disposal with Harry & Sally

  12. harry example initial belief base of harry... Beliefs: bomb(3,4). clean(blockWorld) :- not bomb(X,Y), not carry(bomb). example goal base... Goals : clean( blockWorld )

  13. harry... example belief updates... BeliefUpdates: {bomb(X,Y)} RemoveBomb(X,Y) {not bomb(X,Y)} {true} AddBomb(X,Y) {bomb(X,Y)} {carry(bomb)} Drop() {not carry(bomb)} {not carry(bomb)} PickUp() {carry(bomb)}

  14. harry... example of planning goal rules PG-rules : clean(blockWorld) <- bomb(X,Y) | { goto(X,Y); @blockworld( pickup(), L1 ); PickUp(); RemoveBomb(X,Y); goto(0,0); @blockworld( drop(), L2 ); Drop() }

  15. harry... example of procedural rules of harry... PC-RULES : message(sally, inform, bombAt(X,Y)) <- true | { if (not bomb(A,B) ) then { AddBomb(X,Y); adoptz( clean(blockWorld) ) } else { AddBomb(X,Y) } }

  16. BDI implementation beliefs (query, add, del) goals (peek, push, pop, del) rules (plan library) message handling deliberation cycles agent beliefs rules run time goal stack

  17. designing BDI rules the rubbish eater example (or forager or… or… or…) Rules… world-already-clean standing-next-to-rubbish rubbish-somewhere slots… name, descriptor, type (action or plan) what it achieves when it can be used modifications (add & del) to beliefs & goals

  18. designing BDI rules #1 the rubbish picker example (or forager or… or… or…) Rule world-already-clean: desc (world is clean) achieves (clean world) when (not (rubbish ?x ?y)) type action del-goal (clean world)

  19. designing BDI rules #2 Rule standing-next-to-rubbish: desc (eat rubbish at ?x ?y) achieves (clean world) when (rubbish ?x ?y) (eater-at ?x ?y) type action del (rubbish ?x ?y)

  20. designing BDI rules #3 Rule rubbish-somewhere: desc (walk to rubbish at ?x ?y) achieves (clean world) when (rubbish ?x ?y) (not (eater-at ?x ?y)) type plan post-goal (goto ?x ?y)

  21. designing BDI rules #4 other considerations (some of these are inter-dependent)… • how to handle rules to respond to incoming messages? • how to interact with an environment (eg: assume environment is NetLogo) • how to write the deliberation cycle • how to connect through to a messaging infrastructure layer (assume Boris) • sketch & explanation of complete system (“beer-mat” version)

  22. BDI variations BOID = BDI + Obligations Norms - normative, legal behavior obligations vs desires –> selfishness & altruism strengths of legislations

  23. other issues • meta-agents • message types • sessions & dialog • social issues • trust & reputation • white & yellow pages • brokering

  24. other issues • types of agency – advantages/disadvantages • examples • cleudo • (air) traffic control • cloud delegation