1) BONANZAS!!! Comstock-Nevada, over 30 years mined ~400$ in gold and silver • Black Hills-Dakota Terr. (SD) Deadwood became a boomtown when gold was found in Indian Territory • Colorado-Lots of gold and silver in the mountains beneath the surface, big strikes produced ~1 billion $ (today billions) • Montana-Large amounts of copper • All these strikes put these areas on the map and on the fast track to statehood
Mining (“Boom”) Towns--Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
2) Life in Mining Towns • Boom towns sprung up overnight • Mostly men, very brutal b/c of GREED! • Not many got rich individually, people that did well were large-scale mines, merchants and saloon owners • Law and civil authorities were not usually around at first so vigilance comm were formed to enforce some laws & standards
3) Started on the Great Plains/Open range-Cattle left out in the wild left from Spanish & some from U.S. & French • 4)Mavericks-Unbranded cattle up for grabs. • 5)Cattle drives were organized to round up the cattle & drive them to the markets • One herd have 2,500 and 8-10 cowhands • Tough life-large % were African-Amer. And Mexican-Amer. (Heavy SA influence)
6) Decline of the cattle industry • Too many people involved • Really nasty winters 86-87 • Open range was being fenced off • Few ranchers survived, now fenced off pastures, cowboys now ranch hands
The Range Wars SheepHerders CattleRanchers
Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal.Colonel Colt did!
Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
7) Homestead Act • FREE LAND!!!! Homestead Act ’62-For a small fee settlers could get 160 acres of land if they were 21 or head of family, had to build a house, live there 6 months of year, farm for 5 years in a row before official
New AgriculturalTechnology Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”] “Prairie Fan”Water Pump
8) Technology • Barbed Wire, Dry farming, steel plows, steel wind mills, hybrid breeds of plants • The plains was harsh, hard to plow through the tough sod, scarce water
Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
9) Wheat Belt (Bread Basket of America) • Eastern edge of the Great Plains which was most of the Dakotas, Kansas, and Nebraska • Cheap land and new farming methods made farming wheat profitable
10) Weather and other hardships • Droughts, harsh winters, windstorms • To get through hard times farmers mortgaged their land sometimes they couldn’t keep up their payments and lost their farms • Sometimes they worked for the new owner or moved on to something else
11) The Plains Indians roamed or moved around to with the seasons and to follow food. They would cross vast distances in search of the buffalo.
The Buffalo • The buffalo or bison was an extremely important part of the plains people’s lives. • They used virtually every part of the buffalo from the hide for clothing, to the stomach for holding water. • At one time, an estimated 60 million buffalo roamed the plains of the present day United States and Canada. A buffalo can weigh up to 2,000 pounds and live as long as 30 years. Run 35-40 mph
12) The intro of the horse enabled the Plains Indians to become a very effective hunter. It also was important economically, politically, socially, and for sport.
13) Instead of a century it would only take about a decade to kill almost all the buffalo and take away Indian land. • By 1869 there were only about 800 buffalo left compared to 50 million of 1600. • Railroad split Indian lands and nations in half and interrupted wildlife migration. • Great for settlement and progress. Provided cheap easy transportation of goods and people.
1871 - General Sheridan issues orders forbidding western Indians to leave reservations without permission of civilian agents. 1871 - White hunters begin wholesale killing of buffalo. 1871 - Indian burial grounds invaded by whites seeking bones for manufacture of buttons. 1876-77 - Sioux War for the Black Hills, involving the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapahos, under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. 1876, the Battle of Little Bighorn.
According to the National Bison Association there are only 350,000 buffalos in North America today. • 90 % are privately owned: • Privately owned bison - U.S. - 244,000 • Privately owned bison - Canada - 100,000 Public herds - U.S. - 10,000 • Public herds - Canada - 3,000 • Native American herds - 7,000 • Bison in zoos - 750 • Bison outside U.S & Canada - 300
U.S. Indian Policy??? • 1860-1890 Indians fought to protect their way of life, lands, and to stop the waste of the buffalo. • Govt. solution is divided btw Dept. of War and Dept. of Interior Btw killing and reservations • Made treaties with only certain nations neglecting others • Govt. spends millions on each adult man Indian killed
Eskimo Inuit Tlingit Haida Blackfoot Ottawa Nez Perce Huron Nootka Chippewa Cree Algonquin Wampanoag Shoshone Ojibway Crow Mohawk Shasta Arapaho Kickapoo Sioux Erie Delaware Paiute Cheyenne Iowa Omaha Pomo Hopi Iroquois Navajo Shawnee Pawnee Powhatan Serrano Pueblo Cherokee Comanche Choctaw Yuma Creek Caddo Apache Biloxi Seminole Cochimi Attacapa Taino Aztec Maya
Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacredDecember 21, 1866
14) Fetterman’s Massacre • Conflict with the Lakota Sioux in Wyoming • Lakota under Crazy Horse ambushed a small army detachment under a Capt. William Fetterman whom was outlooking what he thought to be a small group of Indians. All 80 soldiers were wiped out. • Sandcreek Mass-CO Clashes btw settlers/miners & Cheyenne & Arapaho, raiding 1860-64 200 settlers killed, Indians routed to camp, battle ensues, Chivington??? 14 soldiers, 200? Indians including women and kids died Truth?
The Battle of Little Big Horn1876 Gen. GeorgeArmstrong Custer Chief Sitting Bull
14) Little Bighorn-Dakota Terr. 1874 Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse lead attacks against miners & settlers. June 1876 Cheyenne & Sioux kill all of Gen. Custer’s men, only a horse survives • Wounded Knee-Final surrender of the Sioux 1881, unknown who fired first. During “Ghost Dance” (NA revival movement 190 unarmed Indians are killed (some women & kids)
15) Dawes Act • Broke up Indian Nations • 160 acres to farm and after 25 years they would have full title to the land and become citizens • Indians had no concept of land ownership and hard time adapting to new life from 1887-1943 dishonest govt agents & speculators got 86 mill of 138 acres set aside for Indians
The Dawes Act and Assimilation Indian children, seen as the key to assimilation, were forcibly taken from their homes and sent to school. In 1887, the government instituted the Dawes Act to accelerate assimilation by dissolving the reservations and allotting land to individual Indians. Most tribes resisted, refusing to give up their culture and unique ways of life.
Native children at the Carlisle Indian school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. This school forced native children removed from their home to be acculturated to white culture. Many of the children died because of bad food and conditions.