Participants as Writers • Think about the first time you felt like a writer and describe your experience in a few sentences.
A Close Reading of the Writing Standards
Common Core and Writing Participants will understand the expectations of the Common Core State Standards for Writing.
The report: • describes a range of instructional practices that have • demonstrated a positive effect on reading outcomes. • provides guidance on how teachers can use writing • instruction to strengthen students’ reading • performance. • Writing to Read • In the Writing to Read report, Graham and Hebert • examine whether various approaches to writing • instruction impact students’ reading skills and • comprehension. • Graham, S., & Hebert, M.A. (2010).
Recommendation #1 Have students write about text they read. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Research to build and present knowledge Writing Standards 7, 8 and 9
Writing personal reactions • Analyzing the Text • Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading • Having students respond to a text... • improves reading comprehension.
Having students write summaries of a text... has a positive impact on reading comprehension. • Writing summaries: • using only one sentence • using a set of rules or steps • using an outline • by locating and using the main idea in each paragraph • using graphic organizers Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
“Taking notes about text proved to be better than just reading, reading and rereading, reading and studying, reading and underlining important information, and receiving explicit instruction in reading practice.” Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Having students write notes about a text... enhances comprehension.
Having students answer questions about a text in writing or create and answer written questions about a text... • Answering questions about a text in writing; • Writing questions about text read; • Learning how to locate main idea in a text, • generating and answering their own questions • about text. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #2 Teach students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Production and Distribution of Writing Writing Standards 4, 5, and 6
Teaching students the process of writing, text structures for writing, paragraph or sentence construction skills • Two effective strategies were: • the process approach to writing • explicit instruction/mini-lessons that focused on • spelling, sentence combining, and multi- • paragraph composition were beneficial. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Teaching students sentence construction... Activities in the study focused on the formation of complex sentences from smaller units of writing. This type of writing instruction improved reading fluency for students in grades 1-7. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading improves fluency.
Activities in the study focused on the spelling patterns of letters and sounds in words. Teaching students spelling... improves word reading skills. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading
Recommendation #3 Increase how much students write. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Range of Writing Writing Standard 10
Effective instructional practices in this category included both independent and collaborative writing opportunities. Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading Increasing how much students write... improves reading comprehension.
Review of the Writing Standards 1-3 ① Argument ② Informational/Explanatory ③ Narrative Three Text Types
Review of the Writing Standards 4 - 10 ④ Developing and organizing according to task, purpose, and audience ⑤ Revising, editing, rewriting to strengthen writing ⑥ Using technology to produce, publish, and collaborate
⑦Completing short and long research projects ⑧ Gathering, assessing, and integrating information from multiple sources ⑨ Drawing evidence from texts to support analysis ⑩ Writing routinely for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences
Examining the Progression of the Writing Standards • Find the document titled: “Common Core State • Standards for Writing” • Look at the first writing standard • Using a pen/pencil/highlighter move from grade • to grade underlining what is different from the • previous grade
What did you observe? Consider: • K-2 • 3-5 • 6-8 • 9-12 • At what grade do students move from • opinion pieces to argument? • What is the biggest difference when • comparing 8th to 9-10th? • When are students expected to provide • a conclusion?
Writing Standards Haiku • Work with members at your table • Use the Writing Anchor Standard found on the index card in the center of your table • Create a haiku that expresses the gist of • that standard • Haiku: 5-7-5 syllables
Develop writing Plan, revise, edit, rewrite Try a new approach. Anchor Standard 5 Example of Haiku
Writing Standards 1-3 ① Argument ② Informational/Explanatory ③ Narrative Three Text Types
Text Types • In the K-2 classroom, create a classroom environment where students: • know they are authors • express their opinions • share what they know about a topic • recount an event (Writing Standards 1-3)
What does Appendix A tell us about the text types? In the descriptions look for: oPurpose oDefinition oHow http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix A.pdf p. 23-25
Skilled writers • many times • use a blend of • these three • text types to • accomplish • their • purpose... • (from Appendix A) • Combining the Text Types
The Emphasis on Argument • While all three text types are • important, the Standards put • particular emphasis on students’ • ability to write sound argument on • substantive topics and issues, as • this ability is critical to college and • career readiness. p.24 Appendix A • It’s important to teach all types
According to Appendix A of the CCSS: persuasive writing might “appeal to the audience’s self-interest, sense of identity, or emotions,” whereas a logical argument convinces the audience because of the perceived merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered rather than either the emotions the writing evokes in the audience or the character or credentials of the writer” (p. 24). Persuasion or Argument?
From: 5 Things Every Teacher Should be Doing to Meet the Common Core State Standards, Eye on Education http://www.eyeoneducation.com/bookstore/client/client pages/pdfs/5ThingsCCSS Davis.pdf
Fosters understanding – “Our lives • intersect through shared stories” – I can • relate to that... • Inspires – generates ideas for writing • and thinking. Create thinking logs for • future research. • Connects – Discover meaning in their • own experiences and connect to • curriculum content. • Narrative Perks
And it is about building skills • And it is about scaffolding understanding • And it is about integration of text types • TIC • Tir PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education I Department of Public Instruction
Anchor Standard 4 • Produce clear and coherent writing in which • the development, organization, and style are • appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. • Supporting this standard: • Read Like a Writer • Using Mentor Texts
When you read like a writer you • notice: • Word choice • Sentence structure • Organization • And • What questions would you ask as a writer?
Underline and highlight the passage in the text itself and ask yourself: What is the technique the author is using here? Is this technique effective? What would be the advantages and disadvantages if I tried this same technique in my own writing? • When you read like a writer: • Annotate and Read Closely • Read with a pen or highlighter in • hand • Make comments in the margins • Write yourself notes and summaries • Look for patterns
Using Mentor Texts “The simple rhythm of copying someone else’s words gets us into the rhythm of writing, then you begin to feel your own words.” -William Forrester, Finding Forrester
“Nobody is born with a style or a voice. We don’t come out of the womb knowing who we are. In the beginning, we learn by pretending to be our heroes. We learn by copying. We’re talking about practice here, not plagiarism – plagiarism is trying to pass someone else’s work off as your own. Copying is about reverse- engineering. It’s like a mechanic taking apart a car to see how it works.” -Steal Like an Artist by Austin Kleon Steal Like an Artist
A mentor text is any piece of writing that can be used to teach a writer about some aspect of writer’s craft. The best mentor texts are those that can be used numerous times throughout the school year to demonstrate many different characteristics of a text. (ideas, structure, written craft) What are Mentor Texts?
Steps to Using Mentor Texts Select a text to emulate and reread – one that inspires a new idea, structure, or craft worth trying. Read it (Read like a reader) Analyze it (Read like a writer) Emulate it (Write like the writer) - adapted from Kelly Gallagher
Let’s Practice! Choose one of the following ways to prompt your writing. Borrow any line or word from the text that inspires you to write. Look at the last sentence, write 4 more sentences. Choose a section of the text that inspires you to write using that technique (i.e. author’s writing style, use of language, or sentence structure)
Creating Successful Writers with Mentor Texts http://www.reading.org/downloads/53rd conv handouts/mentor texts cappelli dorfman. pdf Mentor Text for the Traits of Writing http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/mentor-texts-traits-writing Teacher 2 Teacher – What are mentor texts? http://www.teacher2teacherhelp.com/writing-strategies/what-are-mentor-texts/ How to Use Mentor Text to Teach Writinghttp://www.ehow.com/how 8216119 use-mentor-texts-teach-writing.html Mentor Text Resources
Anchor Standard 5 • Develop and strengthen writing as needed • by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or • trying a new approach. • Supporting the standard with: • Grammar instruction • Integrating Language standards
Process Writing • In the K-2 classroom, adults guide and support young authors as they learn to strengthen their writing by: • responding to questions and suggestions from peers • add details • focus on a topic • (Writing Standard 5)
Grammar Research and Evidence • Teaching in the • context of writing • Focus on sentence • combining Model and Practice • Using a Mentor Text • Online Tools Integration of the Standards - Writing and Language
v' Writing Standard 5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach • v' Language Standards 1-3: Producing, expanding, and rearranging complete, simple, and compound sentences is an expectation as early as grade 2, Language Standard 1f. • v' “Isolated grammar instruction appears to have little or no positive impact in helping poor writers become better writers” (Graham & Perin, 2007). • Why teach grammar in context?
Teaching Sentence Combining... http://tinyurl.com/bck4bts • Improves • fluency and • comprehension • (Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading, A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report, 2010) • Is a promising • method of • teaching • grammar in • context • (Graham & Perin, 2007; Strong, 1986)
Step 1: Using Mentor Text to Teach Grammar in Context Reread Joe Willhoft’s essay: This I Believe Take note of the following – highlight or circle: The use of punctuation to combine sentences and phrases Use of different types of sentences (simple, compound, complex)
About.com Grammar and Composition: http://tinyurl.com/ap7naea Purdue Online Writing Lab: http://tinyurl.com/a8bxu2m Step 2: Let’s Practice!