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Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions : What is “Organic?” What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?. What does “Organic” Mean?. In Biology, organic means “relating to organisms.”

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Organic Compounds

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  1. Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is “Organic?” What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

  2. What does “Organic” Mean? In Biology, organic means “relating to organisms.” NOT food grown without the use of pesticides, antibiotics, or other industrial chemicals. What do all organic compounds contain? CARBON All organic molecules contain covalently bonded Carbon.

  3. How are the Four Organic Macromolecules Formed? Dehydration synthesis: joins molecules by removing a molecule of water. Polymerization: small units (monomers) are joined together to form large units (polymers.) Monomer + monomer = Polymer! Hydrolysis: breaks apart molecules by adding water (the opposite process)

  4. What are the four organic molecules? Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids We get from food! Resides (stays) in our cells!

  5. What is in a cheeseburger? Nutrition Facts (Big ‘N Tasty at McDonalds): Total Fat: 29 grams Saturated Fat: 9 grams Carbohydrates: 41 grams Protein: 24 grams

  6. Carbohydrates Which part of the cheeseburger has the most carbohydrates?

  7. Carbohydrates • Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 Ratio. • Used for short term energy storage (quick energy!) and structural support • Ending “-ose” = sugar Starch Cellulose Glucose

  8. Monomer + monomer = Polymer! One sugar = Monosaccharide! Two sugars = Polysaccharide! Three or more sugars = Polysaccharide!

  9. Why Carbohydrates? • Many animals store extra sugar as glycogen. • Glycogen stored in your muscles supplies energy for movement. • Glycogen stored in your liver is released when the glucose (sugar) in your blood runs low. • Recall: What is this an example of? • Homeostasis! • Plants store excess sugar as starch. • Plants also make cellulose, a strong, rigid fiber used for support. Starch, cellulose and glycogen are all… Polysaccharides!

  10. What other part of the Big N’ Tasty is composed of carbohydrates? Cellulose!

  11. Which part of the cheeseburger is the best source of protein?

  12. Proteins Proteins are present in every cell, tissue and organ in our bodies. These proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Provide structure for: cells, bones, muscles, tissues, organs, hormones…most everything in the body! Special Function: Proteins are responsible for cell metabolism (via enzymes)

  13. Proteins The protein in the food we eat is digested (broken down) into amino acids that are later used to build and replace other proteins in our bodies. Monomers = amino acids Polymers = proteins When the amino acids join, they form a polymer called a polypeptide. The monomers in an amino acid are held together by peptide bonds. Proteins can be destroyed by extreme heat (fever) = denature

  14. Protein Structure Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 essential amino acids. All amino acids have the same Amino group and carboxyl groups, but each amino acid has its own unique R- group. Only 20 amino acids can combine in different arrangements to form all of the many different kinds of proteins in our bodies! Shape is very important; if a protein is not the right shape, it will not work or only have partial function!

  15. Which part of the cheeseburger is a source of fat?

  16. What is fat? • Fats are a type of lipid. • Lipids are hydrophobic (water-fearing) organic molecule including fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.

  17. Lipids Long chains with lots of Carbon and Hydrogen (long chains), but little or no oxygen Monomers: 1glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains Polymer: lipid If we know that lipids (fat) are hydrophobic and take a long time to break down, what could it be useful for?? • Long term energy storage • Protection • Insulation • Waterproofing • Cell Membranes • Chemical Messengers (steroids)

  18. Lipids come in two flavors… • Saturated: Single Bonds • Animal Fats • Harder to digest • Solids at room temperature • Holds as many Hydrogen atoms as possible • Unsaturated: Double Bonds • Vegetable Oils • Easier to digest • Liquids at room Temperature • Does not hold as many hydrogen atoms as possible Your Turn! Make a quick hypothesis to why Unsaturated Fats are easier to break down (thus healthier for you) than Saturated Fats! It is easier for your body to break double bonds than single bonds due to the number of electrons. Aka, it’s easier to steal 1 electron from Carbon when it is sharing two versus just that one! (Like borrowing money!)

  19. Common Misconceptions:Lipids – Good & Bad Cholesterol You’ll be amazed at what you find online about the different types of cholesterol! You should check it out!

  20. What is a nucleic acid? DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  21. How do nucleic acids relate to the cheeseburger? DNA  RNA  Proteins! DNA Is transcribed into RNA,which is then translated into proteins.

  22. Nucleic Acids • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and two Phosphorus atoms arranged in 3 groups (monomers) • Used for storing and transmitting cellular information in a code called DNA or RNA.

  23. Nucleic Acids • Monomer: Nucleotide • Nitrogen Base • A, G, C, T or U • 5-Carbon Simple Sugar • Deoxyribose (DNA) • Ribose (RNA) • Phosphategroup • Polymer – DNA or RNA Nitrogen Base Phosphate group Simple Sugar

  24. Organic molecules are the building blocks of life They are broken down into monomers, then rebuilt into polymers, then broken down again, then rebuilt again! And so life goes on…

  25. Your turn!What kind of macromolecules did you/will you eat today?

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