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Video Modeling & Video Self-Modeling: Research to Practice

Video Modeling & Video Self-Modeling: Research to Practice

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Video Modeling & Video Self-Modeling: Research to Practice

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  1. Video Modeling & Video Self-Modeling: Research to Practice VDOE T/TAC Autism Priority Project 1

  2. Visual Strategies for intervention and to teach new behaviors Social Stories™, Comic Strip Conversations, Gray, Carol Power Cards, Gagnon, E. The Incredible Five Point Scale, Dunn Buron, K., Curtis,M. Incidental Teaching Schedules Task Lists Scripts Cue Cards 2

  3. But . . . What if the child could actually see themselves or peers performing expected behaviors?Would behavior change and could it be a more significant change? 3

  4. Yes! Yes! Yes!If I can see it, I can do it! 4

  5. Temple Grandin “I think in pictures. Words are like a second language to me. I translate both spoken and written words into full-color movie, complete with sound, whichrun like a VCR tape in my head. When somebody speaks to me, his words are instantly translated into pictures.” From Thinking in Pictures (p.1) 5

  6. Social Learning Theory and Modeling History Albert Bandura: Theories of Social Learning & Self-Efficacy The Bobo Doll Studies (1977) 6

  7. Bandura Bobo Doll Studies Young children viewed a young adult beating on a Bobo doll hit with hammer, sit on it, yell at it When presented with a Bobo doll and hammers, children interacted with the Bobo doll as they had seen the model do without any reinforcement or adult encouragement 7

  8. 8

  9. BanduraFindings Human behavior is primarily learned by observing and modeling others. Observational learning is a cognitive and behavioral change that occurs as a result of observing others engaged in similar actions(Bandura, 1986) 9

  10. Observational Learning Process Four pivotal factors that need to occur: 1. Attention- viewer identifies with model 2. Retention-retain images seen Reproduction-reproduce actions within own repertoire 4. Motivation – reason to imitate actions From “Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?” by Corbett & Abdullah, 2005 10

  11. What is Video Modeling and Video Self Modeling? 11

  12. Video Modeling A procedure in which a learner is shown a videotape of a model performing a target behavior or completing a desired task (Sigafoos, O’Reilly, & de la Cruz, 2007) 12

  13. Greetings Game Video Model –

  14. Adult Model - Firefighter •

  15. Video Modeling Most effective models include individuals close to the observer’s age who have similar characteristics (gender, personality, race and mood) and are functioning only slightly above the observer Buggey, T. (2005) VSM Applications with Students with ASD in a Small Private School Setting 15

  16. Video Self-Modeling (VSM) Intervention where observers are shown videotapes of themselves successfully engaging in an activity 16

  17. Video Self-Modeling (VSM) VSM is a technique that allows: Feedforward - a student to view themselves as they could be in the future (Dowrick) 17

  18. Shirley Video

  19. Videotaped Self-Modeling (VSM) Positive Self-Review – student to view only positive performances of a behavior that has been targeted for intervention (Dowrick) 19

  20. Videotaped Self-Modeling (VSM) VSM increases self-efficacy – the belief that one can succeed Bandura (1982) proposed that: “a person has a greater chance of learning a behavior and gaining a perception of self-competence, when s/he perceives a greater chance of success or self-efficacy”. (Whitlow) 20

  21. Research on Video Modeling and VSM Problem Behaviors Social skills Communication Academic Engagement Impulsivity Adaptive Behavior/Daily Living Skills Athletic Performance Reading Fluency and Comprehension Math Achievement Articulation Disorders Selective Mutism Phobias/Anxiety (Speaking, Social, Specific, etc.) 21

  22. Self or Others as Model??? However some skills may be better addressed through self as model such as: Stuttering Reducing inappropriate behaviors Etc. • Some studies show that “using others as a model is equally as effective as using self as model” (Sherer et al. 2001).

  23. Live vs. Video Modeling (Charlop - Christy et al., 2000) Video modeling more effective than live modeling Video modeling led to better generalization of skills 23

  24. Why it works in autism? preference for visual stimuli (Kinney et al., 2003) offers a way to learn through social models without initial face-to face interactions benefit from visually cued instruction show strengths in processing visual rather than verbal information From “Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?” by Corbett & Abdullah, 2005 24

  25. Siskin Children’s Institute •

  26. Three Methods of generating video Method 1 Have students role-play or imitate behavior that is being targeted Effective when targeting social or language skills Video, edit, & watch 26

  27. Samples of Children Modeling Desired Behaviors •

  28. Method 2 Provide the student with hidden supports that will enable the him/her to complete the task Video close footage of the student – excluding the provided supports Edit out the supports Create the illusion that the student completed the task without assistance 28

  29. Avery and the ball

  30. Example—Feedforward Kayla (use PECS to talk to teachers)

  31. Method 3 Tape the student over a period of time Edit the footage to show only the desirable skills/behaviors that may be more rarely performed 31

  32. Language Acquisition- Brady • Brady- s, z, th sounds

  33. Creating a Video Model Steps: 1. Decide on behavior/skill to address Questions to ask/consider: is this a behavior/skill that can be addressed through a less time consuming method is this behavior/skill impeding the child’s learning or access to the environment is this behavior/skill an important one to change/improve 33

  34. Creating a Video Model 2. Do a task analysis of skill/behavior -determine each skill needed in sequence - create a storyboard 3. Establish Baseline through data collection 34

  35. Creating a Video Model 4. Videotape skills/behaviors 5. Edit video so that only the desirable skills/behaviors are seen (max 3 min) 35

  36. Creating a Video Model 6. Provide individual a set time to view video of themselves demonstrating desired skills/behaviors 36

  37. Creating a Video Model • 7. Take data • Take data during intervention • Return to baseline • Take data during maintenance

  38. Tools needed to generateVSM product Video Camera - Digital video camera, digital camera or VHS camera Video-editing software Computer with a CD or DVD burner 38

  39. Video Modeling/Video Self-Modeling Web Resources 39

  40. Videos on the Web • Leon’s Movie • Deon’s movie (This video reflects the work of Dr. Peter Dowrick) • Siskin Children’s Institute: Breakthroughs in Autism (This video reflects the work of Dr. Tom Buggey) • New England Center for Children – NECC preschool playroom (This sight and video are the work of Rebecca McDonald who does a lot of research in the area of Video Modeling) 40

  41. National Professional Development Center on ASD • Evidence Based Practices • Brief on Video Modeling

  42. Videos on the Web Greetings Game Video Model - Video Modeling Turn-Taking - Teaching Social Skills to Kids with Autism and Aspergers - used in schools, homes, and therapy centers - Video Modeling - Sharing - Video Modeling - Firefighter - 42

  43. References Apple, A.L., Billingsley, F., Schwartz, I.S. (2005). Effects of video modeling along and with self-management on compliment-Giving behaviors of children with high-functioning ASD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(1), 33-46. Bandura, A. Retrieved from Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73 (3). Buggey, T. (2007). A picture is worth . . . Video self- modeling applications at school and home. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 151-158. Buggey, T. (2005) VSM applications with students with autism spectrum disorder in a small private school setting. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 52-63. 43

  44. References Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 537-552. Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285. Clare, S.K., Jenson, W.R., Kehle, T.J. & Bray, M.A. (2000). Self-modeling as a treatment for increasing on-task behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 37(6), p. 517-522. Corbett, B.A. & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism? Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2 (1), 2-8. Creer & Miklich (1970).The application of a self-modeling procedure to modify inappropriate behavior: a preliminary report. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 91-2. 44

  45. References Darden, F. (2006). Video self-modeling to facilitate visual symbol learning in preschoolers with developmental delays. Dissertation: Florida State University. Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 345-351. D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11. Dowrick, P.W. (1991). Practical guide to using video in the behavioral sciences. New York: Wiley. Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow, & Power. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. The Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 194-207. 45

  46. References Greenberg, Buggey, & Bond - Video Self-Modeling as a Tool for Improving Oral Reading Fluency and Self-Confidence (ERIC - # ED471091). Grandin, T. (1995). Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. New York: Doubleday. Nikopoulos, C.K., & Keenan, M. (2007). Using video modeling to teach complex social sequences to children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 678-693. Simpson A., Langone, J., & Ayres, K. M. (2004). Embedded video and computer based instruction to improve social skills for students with autism. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 39(3), 240-252. Wert & Neisworth. (2003). Effects of VSM on spontaneous requesting in children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 30-4. 46

  47. Questions??? Will video modeling work for your children and families? What do you need to make this happen?