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501503742 Nuclear and Radiation Physics

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## 501503742 Nuclear and Radiation Physics

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**501503742 Nuclear and Radiation Physics**Nuclear Physics at BAU http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/ This course http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/nuclear-radiation/ • Before we start, let us tackle the following: • Why nuclear physics? • Why radiation physics? • Why in Jordan? • Interdisciplinary. • Applied. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**General subjects to be covered**• This is an introductory course that will cover the following general subjects • Nuclear properties. • Binding energy and nuclear stability. • Nuclear models. • Spin and moments. • Nuclear forces. • The structure of the nucleus. • Nuclear reactions: energetics and general cross-section behavior. • Neutron moderation, fission, controlled fission and fusion. • Radioactive decays. • Interactions of nuclear radiations (charged particles, gammas, and neutrons) with matter. This phenomenological course provides the launch point for other nuclear physics courses that will follow. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Level Test**• Write down whatever you know about nuclear spin. • Describe how can either fission or fusion produce energy. • What is … • Compton scattering? • Energy straggling? • Annihilation? • Neutron activation? • Isotopes, Isotones, Isobars, Isomers? • Parity. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Grading**Mid-term Exam 25% Project, quizzes and HWs 25% Final Exam 50% • Homeworks are due after one week unless otherwise announced. • Remarks or questions marked in red without being announced as homeworks should be also seriously considered! • Some tasks can (or should) be sent by email: • saed@dababneh.com Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Proposed Projects**• Experiments to determine nuclear properties. • Nuclear power generation. • Nuclear medicine. • Health physics. • Accelerator driven systems. • Nucleosynthesis. • Technological applications (e.g. Material Science). • Radioactive ion beams. • Neutrino physics. • Radiological dating. • Environmental radioactivity. • ….. (your own selected subject). • Decide on the title of your project within two weeks. • Due date (for written version): December 6th. • Presentation: Will be scheduled later. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Scale and Objectives**• Dimensional scale: • Order of magnitude of 1 x 10-15 m • 1 femtometer 1 fm 1 fermi. • Too small for direct investigation. • What about time and energy scales? • We need to answer ….. • What are the building blocks of a nucleus? • How do they move relative to each other? • What laws governing them? • We need to understand: • Nuclear forces (Q2, Q3). • Nuclear structure (Q2, Q3). • We also need High Energy Physics (to answer Q1). Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Constants**http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Nomenclature**Element vs. Nuclide. 94 natural chemical elements, total > 100. Element Atomic number (Z) chemically identical. ~3000 nuclides……? How many are stable? Same Z but different neutron number (N) Isotopes. Total number of nucleons = Z+N = A mass number. Chart of Nuclides Clickable…! Radioactive Stable Radioactive redundant Same mass number Isobars chemically dissimilar, parallel nuclear features (Radius …). decay. Same neutron number Isotones?????. Same Z and same A Isomers metastable. Stable isotope (Isotopic)Abundance. Radioactive isotope Half-life. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Stable Isotopes**HWc 1 Then plot Z vs. N. Odd A Even A Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Basic Nuclear Properties**• Properties Structure • The energy of the nucleon in the nucleus is in the order of 10 MeV. • HW 1 Calculate the velocity of a 10 MeV proton and show that it is almost 15% of the speed of light. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations). • Relativistic effects are not important in considering the motion of nucleons in the nucleus. HW 2Calculate the wavelength of a 10 MeV proton and compare it with the nuclear scale. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations). Is the nucleus thus a classical or a quantum system? • HW 0 Krane, Ch. 2. HW 3Calculate the wavelength for an electron of the same energy to show that it is much too large to be within the nucleus. (Perform both classical and relativistic calculations). Discuss the proton-electron nuclear hypothesis! Chadwick, neutron. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Basic Nuclear Properties**• Static nuclear properties (Time-independent): • Electric charge, radius, mass, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic dipole moment, electric quadrupole moment, energies of excited states. • Dynamic properties (Time-dependent): • Self-induced (Radioactive decay). • Forced (Nuclear reactions)cross sections. . • The key: Interaction between individual nucleons. • Excited states: atomic intervals ~ eV. • nuclear intervals ~ 104 – 106eV. • Decays and reactions: Conservation laws and selection rules. • HWc 2Where to find nuclear data??? Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Nuclear Mass (Introduction)**• Unified atomic mass unit u based on 12C. • Replaced both physical and chemical amu based on 16O and natural oxygen, respectively (Find conversion factors). • 1 u = M(12C)/12 = ……… kg = …………… MeV/c2. • Rest masses • u MeV/c2 kg • electron ………… …………… ……… • proton ………… …………… ……… • neutron ………… …………… ……… • 12C 12 …………… ……… • Avogadro’s number .. !! What is the number of atoms in 1 kg of pure 238U? • Mass Stability. E = mc2.Tendency towards lower energy Radioactivity. • Neutron heavier than proton “Free” neutron decays (T½ = ???): Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**Nuclear Mass (Introduction)**• Nuclear masses measured to high accuracy: • mass spectrograph. • energy measurement in nuclear reactions. • Mass decrement = difference between actual mass and mass number: • Δ = m – A • http://www.eas.asu.edu/~holbert/eee460/massdefect.html • Negative Δ mass into energy. • Binding Energy? • Stability? • Fission? • Fusion? • More later …….. • Usually atomic masses are tabulated. • Mass of the atom < ZmH + Nmn. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**The Valley of Stability**Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).