Carrie Connolly Pat Crane Gail Moskowitz Candy Weems EDLP 704- Spring 2014
Introduction • Article- • What is bullying? • Specific form of aggressive behavior characterized by • Intention to harm • Repeated occurrence • Imbalance of power between bully and victim • Physical, verbal, cyber-bullying Candy
Article Summary • The study is on perspectives of a random sampling of 213 school psychologists on anti-bullying policies in American schools. • The study focused on bullying prevention strategies in five categories: • Systems-level interventions • School staff and parent involvement • Educational approaches with students • Student involvement • Interventions with bullies and victims • Candy
Research • The survey instrument was developed based on existing theoretical and empirical information about school-based bullying and prevention. • 500 surveys were sent and asked the following questions • What anti-bullying strategies are most/least implemented in US schools? • What anti-bullying strategies do school psychologists perceive as most effective? • What areas do school psychologists perceive need improvement? • What barriers make the improvement difficult? • 213 returned and interpretable
Research Results • Most frequently used strategies • Talking with bullies after bullying incidents • disciplinary consequences for bullies • increased adult supervision Peer juries/court • Least frequently used • an anti-bullying committee • peer counselors
Research Results • Anti-bullying strategy perceived mosteffective • school-wide positive behavior support plan • Modifying space and schedule • Immediate responses • Perceived least effective • Avoid contact between bully and victim • Zero tolerance • Written anti-bullying policy • parent involvement bullying preventions strategy • Findings of the study consistent with previous findings and literature • School wide positive behavior support plan • Rigor of research???
What type of policy? • School-wide positive behavior support plan • Includes school or entire district establishing behavioral guidelines to reinforce pro-social behavior and empathy • Regulatory policy • Codify and prescribe how school personnel would be required teach positive behavior.
What type of policy? • Modified space and schedule for less structured activities • Identify the areas and activities not currently well supervised by adults and then school personnel would be dispatched • Redistributive policy • Human resource would need to be reallocated or monies apportioned for extra personnel
What type of policy? • Immediate responses to bullying incidents • Clear guidelines to address both the perpetrator and the victim of bullying as a critical incident in need of immediate response • Regulatory policy • Codify and prescribe how school personnel would intervene after an incident of bullying
Strategies Used to Promote Policy • Focused on multiple targets • Research studies on effectiveness • Create buy in with community • Communication/dissemination of research to all stakeholders • Public Forums • Town Hall Meetings • Articles in local paper/newsletter • Direct mailings • Use of social media
Benefits • Create a welcoming safe environment • Several strategies • Allow schools to select policy that best fits their population • Training fosters consistency • Staff able to handle more situations • Provides structure in reporting • Raise awareness, changes attitudes and educate
Disadvantages • Zero tolerance • Does not address issue • Peer mediations • Balance of power? • Parent involvement • 2nd most implemented strategy • What is bullying? • Personal growth and development
Challenges • Buy in from the staff • Survey indicated higher priorities over bullying • Lack of time for training and handling situations • Need additional staffing • Supervision in unstructured areas • Reporting structure • Training staff • Do more with less” • Survey results • Barriers – time and priorities
Improving Anti-bullying policy • Areas of improvement indicated by survey results • Staff training • Community involvement • Reporting structure for bullying policies
Application to Workplace and Leadership • Need to consider all stakeholders • Staff involvement • Train staff, increased supervision in areas, committees • Parent involvement • Conference Day, newsletter, etc. • Communication strategies for policy implementation • How to communicate policy with students • Educational approaches • Time constraints • Will staff have time for trainings or additional required meetings?