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  1. SOUTH EAST ASIA Mainland and Insular Regions

  2. GENERALIZATIONS • Consists of mainland and insular regions • Has been shatter belt between powerful adversaries • Fractured cultural and political geography • High relief, volcanic activity , earthquakes, tropical climates • Legacies of foreign influences still felt • Insular SE Asia population growing faster than mainland • Mekong river starts in China and flows through 5 countries sustaining farmers, fishing and boat owners • Indonesia, most populous country but has not reached potential

  3. POPULATION GEOGRAPHY • Of SE Asia’s 546 million people, over half (303 million or 55%) live on islands of Indonesia and Philippines; leaves mainland with only 45% of total population • Limited immigration because of physical geography • Ethnically similar but cultural differences have emerged through time • Hindu, Islam, Buddhism and Christianity all present • Real division between rural/urban society • Minorities in each country from surrounding countries

  4. EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL MAP • Dutch, French, British and Spanish (then America after Spanish-American War) major European colonizers • Created zones to control but problem came after independence • France becomes Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos • Britain develops into Burma (now Myanmar) and Malaysia • America develops Philippines • Dutch developed Indonesia • Outcome very similar to what happened in Africa

  5. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY • Boundaries: contracts between states • 4 types of boundaries and all found in SE Asia • Antecedent: defined and delineated before present-day human landscape; Malaysia and Indonesia • Subsequent: result of long process of adjustment and modification; China and Vietnam • Superimposed: drawn forcibly across unified cultural landscape; Indonesia and Papua New Guinea • Relict: border that has ceased to function but imprint still evident in culture; North and South Vietnam

  6. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY, cont. • Territorial Morphology: individual countries shape that affects is condition and survival • 5 types and 4 found in SE Asia • Compact: somewhere between round and rectangular, without major indentations; Cambodia • Protruded: substantial, usually compact territory from which extends a peninsular corridor that may be landlocked of coastal; Thailand, Myanmar • Elongated: length is at least six times the average width, lies astride environmental or cultural transitions, Vietnam • Fragmented: two or more territorial unites separated by foreign territory or by water, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines • Perforated: completely surround territory of other states; South Africa and Lesotho

  7. MAINLAND SE ASIA • Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma) • Vietnam • Vietnam War; 1954-1974; based on Domino Theory • Most today don’t remember War, 60% or population under 21 years of age • Currently united under Communist North • Recently seen foreign investment, privatization of industry especially in Saigon (South Vietnam) and some saw North and South growing apart again • Cambodia • French colony, primarily Hindu • 1975 overthrown by Khmer Rouge who destroyed economy and country • Vietnam invaded in 1970’s after Khmer Rouge creating major refugees into Thailand • 1998 Pol Pot committed suicide and many hoping Cambodia will turn around, but it is dependent on political stability which seems hard to find

  8. MAINLAND SE ASIA, cont. • Laos • Interior and isolated, Surrounded by 5 nations who all stronger • 5.5 million people, no railroads, few paved roads, only 17% urban • Thailand • 63.1 million people, constitutional monarchy and attempts to move more towards democracy thwarted • During 1990’s Thailand grew rapidly, but in 1997 currency fell and became first casualty in economic probs of late 1990s • Buddhism primary religion and tourism leading source of revenue • AIDS infects 1 million of 60 million population • Myanmar • When British left, ruled by military dictatorship destroyed political and economic stability • Today one of poorest nations in world, leading exporter in Opium Trade, high unemployment, limited industrial growth • Recent anti-government/pro-democracy protests have lead to violence, Buddhist monk protests and international condemnation

  9. INSULAR SE ASIA • Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor, Philippines • Malaysia • 24.2 million people, predominantly Muslim • Economic growth occurring but existence of many minorities creating cultural problems • Singapore • 1965 seceded from Malaysia and became ministate • 4.1 million people, 240 square miles • Modern, wealthy, one of worlds largest high tech producers • As long as world considers Singapore safe and not corrupt will continue to expand and grow

  10. INSULAR SE ASIA, cont. • Indonesia • Largest archipelago in world; 17,000 islands and 219 million people • Controls 5 major islands, some of whom want independence • Economic stability kept dictator in power, but affected by economic downturn that hit Pacific Rim, late 1990’s • East Timor • Formerly part of Indonesia but in 1999 voted for Independence and currently working for it • Philippines • Primarily Christian with some Islamic influence • Mix of Mongoloid, Malay, Arab, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and American created unique Pilipino culture • During 1990’s economic growth occurred despite volcano eruption, Islamic insurgents and territory dispute • If keeps economically stable, this lower-middle-income country will improve and become powerful in emerging Pacific Rim