Challenges for the Early Commonwealth Ireland; Scotland; The Dutch The Rump Parliament The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell Personality & Promise Role of the Army Governmental Initiatives The Nominated Parliament Instrument of Government Major-Generals Humble Petition and Advice Radical Religion Diversity, Goals of Sects The End The Interregnum: 1649-1660 Cromwell’s “Dunbar Medal,” 1650, for Officers & Men
Challenges for the Early Commonwealth Ireland Suppressing Rebellion, 1649-50 Drogheda, Wexford English/Prot. Settlements (Land) Scotland Allegiance to Charles (I & II) Dunbar, Worcester; Flight of Charles II September 3, 1650, 1651 The Dutch War Trade Disputes; English Dominate, ‘52-4 The Rump Parliament, 1649-53 About 50 MPs, of c. 550 from Long Parliament Combined Executive & Legislative Suppressing Opponents: Royalist & Radical Dissolution for Corruption, April ‘53 Alexander Leslie, Scots General, 1642, anon.; NPG
The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell Personality & Promise Strong Puritan Background Church & State Relationship Middling Sort; Regicide Religious Liberty; Anti-Blasphemy Parliamentarian; Purger Military Commander of the Godly Role of the Army Enforced Righteousness Religious Motivations Ensuring “Just” Proceeding Political Motivations Self-Preservation Financial Motivations Oliver Cromwell, c. 1649, by Robert Walker, NPG
Governmental Initiatives The Nominated Parliament, 1653 Cromwell & Army Godly Representatives PraisegodBarebone Moderates Fearful, Dissolve Instrument of Government, Dec. ‘53 Lord Protector for Life; w/ Parlia. Powers, Not Title of King Similar to Heads of Proposals, ’47 Major-Generals, 1655-7 Military Rule; Morality, Taxation Humble Petition and Advice, 1657 2ndParlia.; Upper House Revived Suppressing Radical Quaker, Naylor Donkey, Bristol, Palms; Blasphemy Barebone, n.d., anon.; NPG
Radical Religion Diversity Anabaptists; Umbrella Term Fifth Monarchy Men Levellers; Diggers Ranters; Seekers; Quakers Goals of Sects Religious: Ushering in the End-Time Heaven-on-Earth Political: Economic Grievances Egalitarian/Democratic Ideas Threat of Revolution Social: Aid to Lower Orders Disobedience & Deviance From Daniel Featley, Katabaptistaekataptüstoi: The dippers dipt, or, The anabaptistsduck’d and plung’d over head and eares, at a disputation in Southwark, 1645.
The End Oliver’s Death, September 3, 1658 Anniversary of Dunbar, Worcester “Eminent” & “Crowning” Mercy Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, ‘58-60 Parliament’s Cooperation Conflict with Army (Wages), J. Lambert Army Recalls & Dissolves Rump (of 1653) Towards Order: Returning to Monarchy George Monck’s March from Scotland Support of Fairfax, Others Return of MPs of Long Parlia. New Parlia.; Negotiations with Charles II Royalty Restored In England, May 1660; Crowned, 1661 Charles II, c. 1660-5, by John Michael Wright; NPG