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Portugal and China in the Indian Ocean

Portugal and China in the Indian Ocean

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Portugal and China in the Indian Ocean

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  1. Portugal and China in the Indian Ocean

  2. THE INDIAN OCEAN

  3. INDIAN OCEAN MONSOONS JANUARY MONSOON (DRY) WINDS JULY MONSOON (WET) WINDS

  4. INDIAN OCEAN TRADE 1. Merchants from Muslim, Indian, Chinese worlds 2. Two types of commodities: luxury, staple 3. Government protected trade through entrepôts 4. Commonly observed rules, stability 5. Merchants frequently spread faith, culture

  5. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS INDIAN OCEAN

  6. MING DYNASTY • Overthrew Yuan (Mongols) • Wanted to re-establish past Chinese • (Tang) prominence and power • Revived old Chinese knowledge • Rebuild Chinese arts • Strengthened • Neo-Confucianism

  7. CHINESE MOTIVATIONS • Emperor Zhu Di usurped throne from • second emperor (nephew) • Nephew fled abroad • Emperor sent chief eunuch and fleet • Find him • Reestablish ancient tribute system • Proof of Chinese • superiority

  8. PORTUGUESE MOTIVATION:GOD, GLORY, GOLD • Religious zeal • Crusades • Trade monopoly • Ottomans • Mansa Musa • Renaissance • Technology

  9. TO AFRICA & THE CAPE • West Africa=Portugal’s training ground • Local states more powerful than • Portugal and wanted trade • Portuguese while pushing • south learned • Raid and trade • Better sailing knowledge

  10. ZHENG - HE • Muslim palace eunuch • Ideal to lead emperor’s fleet • Knowledge of foreigners • Knowledge of “Western” lands • In Nanking oversaw: • Building of fleet • Recruitment of sailors, • soldiers, and guides • Much resentment against his • expeditions

  11. PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR • Portugal reconquered land • from Muslims • Hemmed in by Castile • Turned to seas to make future • State backed: • Overseas exploration • Shipbuilding • Schools to train sailors • State rewarded success • Titles • Property

  12. PORTUGUESE ADMIRALS • Trained sailors from all over Europe • Promotion based on experience • Taught navigation using • Arab astrolabe & compass • Ships designed for Atlantic • Fleet pushed into Atlantic • Discovered Azores, Canaries • Followed coasts of Africa

  13. MING VOYAGES • Seven voyages called treasure fleets • Ships visited SE Asia, India, Arabia, • Africa • Typical fleet had around: • 100 ships, largest • about 3,000 tons • 90,000 troops, • sailors

  14. PORTUGUESE VOYAGES • Fleets small but heavily armed • Three phases: • Down African coast to Cape of Good Hope • Cape to India along East African coast • India to China through Malacca Straits

  15. STAR RAFTS (DRAGON FLEETS) • Chinese fleet had 100’s of ships • 130 meter long, 9-masted, 3,000+ tons • Crews of thousands, tons of cargo • Watertight bulkheads, retractable rudders

  16. CARAVEL & NAO • Had to handle hazards, weather of • Atlantic some of worst on globe • Sails had to be able to turn as wind direction changed • Bow was high to cut the waves • Ships were sailing forts • Stern, bow were castles • Armed with heavy, light guns

  17. CHINESE TACTICS • “Carrot and stick” • Sought trade and tribute • Needed little but others wanted • their goods • If states refused to • submit/trade, Zheng • He used superior • troops & weapons • as diplomacy • (sparingly)

  18. PORTUGUESE TACTICS • First, threats backed by • terror tactics and military • technology • Essentially pirates • Later, from capital, Goa (now an Indian State): • Controlled choke points • (straits) • Built forts • Monopolized spice trade • Sent missionaries

  19. THE INDIAN OCEAN • Found Muslim’s thriving trade • Sacked most Swahili city-states in • East Africa • Built forts to control key points • In India, had nothing to trade with • Hindus • Later, to control trade: • Established markets, forts, missions • Wed local women

  20. BENEFITS? • China benefited little • Zheng-He never found missing prince • Did reestablish tribute system • Little except spices found to trade • Portugal came to control Indian • Ocean spice trade, making it wealthy • Biggest gain was spread of • Christianity

  21. TIMELINES 1405: Zheng He’s first of seven voyages leaves Nanking 1406: Ptolemy’s Geography translated in West; Chinese reach India 1411: Zheng He conquers Sri Lanka 1415: Zheng He conquers Sumatran Kingdom, reach Hormuz 1416: Henry the Navigator defeats Muslims in Morocco 1417: Zheng He intervenes in Indian wars 1418: Chinese armada attacks Mogadishu 1420: Portuguese reach Madiera, explore African coast 1427: Portuguese reach Azores 1433: Zheng He dies, disgraced 1434: Portuguese fleet enters Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea 1436: Ming Emperor ends overseas naval explorations 1488: Portuguese reach southern tip of Africa 1498: Portuguese reach west coast of India by way of East Africa

  22. CH’I-LIN AND CONFUCIANS • Chinese “unicorn” is symbol of good • fortune • Its coming symbolic of good times • Neo-Confucians taught: • China was center of world • Had reached height of power • Neo-Confucians: • Despised merchants • Disliked eunuchs • Favored internal development

  23. MING END • Northern nomads • Great Wall • A New Capital • New Emperor • Japanese pirates • Grand Canal • Cost of fleets • Anti-eunuch • Confucianism

  24. PORTUGUESE END • 1580—last Portuguese • king died • Philip II, King of Spain, • inherited crown • Spanish interests first • Dutch, French, and English: • Encroached on Portuguese • markets & empire • Stole both for their states

  25. FIRST TO ENTER, LAST TO LEAVE • Portugal first European nation to • establish colonial empire and last to • lose it • 1960—India annexed Goa • 1975—Mozambique independent & • Indonesia took East Timor • 1999—Macao returned to China

  26. CHINA AND PORTUGAL IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

  27. LINKS Dutch and Portuguese Colonial History www.geocities.com/Athens/Styx/6497/ Asian Journey www.time.com/time/asia/features/journey2001/ The European Voyages of Exploration www.acs.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/ index.html Internet History Sourcebook Project www.fordham.edu/halsall/