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Althea officinalis – Lund Botanical Garden, 2011

Althea officinalis – Lund Botanical Garden, 2011

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Althea officinalis – Lund Botanical Garden, 2011

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  1. Challenges and perspectives on ex-situ conservation of plants from relict cultivation (from the Middle ages)Svein Øivind Solberg, Nordic Genetic Reseource Center (NordGen) Altheaofficinalis – Lund Botanical Garden, 2011

  2. Important questions for a gene bank Authentisity of the material Germination/regeneration protocols? Genetic variation – within- and between populations? Co-operation – gene bank, botanical gardens, museums, local owners/users and other in conservation and use of the material? Inulahelenium Ystad, 2012

  3. Plants from relictcultivation - at the gene bank at NordGentoday • Bernt Løjtnantscollection: • Jylland (Kalø , Agri, Kollerup, Mols, Mariager ) - 2007 • Sjælland (Borreby, Holsteinborg, Agersø, Skjælskør, Fyrendal) - 2009 • Bornholm (Hammershus, Melsted, Bølshavn, Gudhjem, Svaneke) - 2009 • Jylland (Mols – Dråby, Esby, Bosby, Strandsø, Eens kirke ) - 2009 • Fyn (Kærsgaard, Brahetrolleborg, Hesselager, Kaleko, Tranekær, Valdemar)– 2010 • Jylland (Fiskbæk, Høegholm, Ørslevskloster, Kvols, Spøtterup) - 2011 • ---- • Total 271 accessions

  4. Other collects: • Skåne (Malmø, Lund) – relict cultivation from MA • Iceland (Angelica, Carum) --- • Karelen - Scandinavian settlements • USA (Scandinavian emigrants) – cultivars/landraces of oat, wheat, beans, peas • Landraces and old cultivars (last centyry – today) • POM collection (from before 1950) ---- • Future plans: Samsø, Denmark – with BerntLøjtnant – Sept/Oct 2012 Norway - with Per ArvidÅsen, 2013? Filtkondslys (Verbascumthapsus), Klostergården, Lund, 2011

  5. Somechallanges; nofruits, fewfruits Solbær (Ribes nigrum, Hald, 2011 Dansk ingefær (Arumalpinumssp. danicum, Mols, 2010

  6. otherchallanges; extremly rare, hybridization Bryoniadioica, Stranso, 2010 Grenet kongslys? (Verbascumsp.) Strandso, 2010

  7. Whatarewecollecting? 200 ? • Kalø (fort ruin) • Built in 1313 - left over in 1670th • BerntLøytnant: registred 26 relict species introduced and cultivated (SKALK 4/2007:11-15) • These are plants introduced before 1670th – and after 1313 • These plants are the most long-lived cultivated plants («sejlivede») from that period at this site • The people at the fort must have cultivated also a lot of other species, these are not at the site anymore. The number of cultivated species at a fort could have been 200 • Collected and stored in the gene bank – 4 accession 26 4

  8. Hammershus (fort ruin) 200 ? 53 8

  9. «Sejlivede» - black listing Myrrhisodorata, Stenbeg, Østre Toten, 2011

  10. The job has just started Collect Clean - verify quality and quantity Dry - internal humidity 5% Pack - sealed al-bags Store - at minus 18 C; three locations --- Passport data – documentation --- Germination tests Regeneration – multiplication Distribution Reseda luteola Klostergården, Lund, 2011

  11. Establishment ofgerminationprotocols Experiment with 40 accessions from different taxa • no stratification • three weeks stratification (4˚C) • six weeks of stratification (4˚C) Followed by 17 days of incubation at 20˚C, 16 h day length. Twenty-five seeds of each accession, placed on moist filter paper (soaked in ordinary tap water) were used for each treatment. Germinated seeds were recorded and removed continuously during the incubation. • Responded very well to the stratification periods tested • Germinated well without the stratification or had just marginal increase with stratification • Negative impact of stratification • Insufficient stratification- or incubation-period • Other measures have to be taken

  12. Other measures have to be taken • Aegopodiumpodagraria • Aethusacynapium • Anchusaofficinalis • Ballotanigra • Chelidoniummajus • Humuluslupulus • Hyoscyamusniger • Malvaneglecta • Parietariaofficinalis • Reseda luteola Chelidoniummajus, Gjøvikgård, 2011 • Further actions must be considered to develop reliable germination protocols for these species. It may include chemical-, mechanical- or prolonged stratification-treatments or a combination of these. A successful example with mechanical treatment that demonstrates this has been shown in M. neglecta which in this trial had 0% germination; seeds chipped with a scalpel had 100% germination in less than five days without any other treatment.

  13. Genetic variation – within or betweenpopulations

  14. Regeneration • Isolation – pollination - contamination • Numberof plants • Costsofregeneration NGB9968 Alliumschoenoprasum

  15. Co-operation in conservation and use • Local owners/users (in-situ) • Gene bank (ex-situ) • Botanical gardens • Museums • Cultural sciences • Authorities • Others Melissa officinale Lund, 2012