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Dr. Erick J. Mann Professor of History. Ethno-Linguistic groups. Economy and Land. Early history. 802-834 Jayavarman II Founder of Angkor Empire 1113-1150 Suryavarman II Construction of Angkor Wat 250-square-mile s , Beng Melea, Banteay, Samre, Chey Say Tevoda, Thommanon.
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Dr. Erick J. Mann Professor of History
802-834 Jayavarman II Founder of Angkor Empire • 1113-1150 Suryavarman II Construction of Angkor Wat 250-square-miles • , Beng Melea, Banteay, Samre, Chey Say Tevoda, Thommanon
Chams defeat Angkor in 1177 • 1243-1295 Jayavarman VIII Mass Destruction of Buddha statues; Kublai Khan' Mongol invaded Angkor's border • Angkor Sacked by Thai Army; Glory of Angkor ends in 1431 • 1432-1859-Dark period of Angkor (rare historical accounts found)
1860-Re-discovery of Angkor by Henri Mouhotb. May 15, 1826 — d. November 10, 1861)
early 1800s, much of modern Cambodia's territory was either a part of Siam or was a vassal state paying tribute to the Siamese court • Vietnamese who were migrating west at a steady rate • French arrived in Southeast Asia to colonize Cochin China (southern Vietnam) • September 1858 France occupied Da Nang & 18 February 1859 they conquered Saigon • 1863-Cambodia became a French Colony • French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochin China, and the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos was added in 1893. The federation lasted until 1954
French Protectorate, 1863-1948 • Kingdom of Cambodia, 1948-1970 • Khmer Republic, 1970-1975 • Democratic Kampuchea, 1975-1979 • State of Cambodia, 1989-1991 • 1991-1993 (UN administration) • Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993-
Cambodian monarchy managed to survive • cultural symbol rather than a political leader • France's main interests lay in Vietnam • French employed Vietnamese civil servants to manage Cambodian affairs • 1st Cambodian political upheaval in 1941, when King Sisowath Monivong (1875-1941) died • Sisowath family had consolidated its power base over the decades - a power base that now caused the French much concern. • denied the Sisowath family (including their rising star prince, Sirik Matak -1914-1975) the right to the throne. The French instead selected a king from the house of Norodom, close cousins of the Sisowaths.
Norodom family could legitimately trace its claim to the throne through several Norodom monarchs of the late 1800s • 1941 they were seen by the French as the weaker royal house. • 19-year-old Norodom Sihanouk • Political instability
Japanese left Sihanouk on the throne and allowed Vichy French representatives to administrate Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos • reinforce local anti-colonialist feelings • Japanese government and Thai allies back the Khmer Issarak (Free Khmer) partisans, an anti-French Cambodian guerrilla movement led by Son Ngoc Thanh • July 20, 1942, anti-French demonstration was organized • March 9, 1945 Japanese troops in Indochina staged a coup de force by imprisoning French officials, military personnel and interning French citizens throughout Indochina • Japanese ordered the kings of Indochina - Cambodia's Sihanouk, Laos' King Sisavang Vong, and Vietnam's Emperor Bao Dai - to declare independence from France.
The French return • hopes to mold a new Indochina run by pro-French democratic constitutions instead of anti-French, independent-minded regimes • northern Vietnam, though, Ho Chi Minh, nationalist leader of the communist guerrilla force known as the Viet-Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh (League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh for short), refused to allow Bao Dai and his French-supported monarchy to run the nation's affairs • August 2, 1945 - before the allies could stop him - Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh forces entered Hanoi, declaring the birth of a new Vietnamese state • speech modeled after the US Declaration of Independence:
"We, members of the provisional government of the Democratic Republic of Viet-Nam solemnly declare to the world that Viet-Nam has the right to be a free and independent country - and in fact it is so already. The entire Vietnamese people are determined to mobilize all their physical and mental strength, to sacrifice their lives and property in order to safeguard their independence and liberty."
French did not accept Ho's authority • Helped by British troops they eventually forced Ho to sign a truce in 1946 • skirmishes between French and Viet Minh forces increased • Viet Minh regrouped in the bush and began a war of attrition against the French
Sihanouk appointed his opponent Son Ngoc Thanh as prime minister – why? • September French came back to Cambodia and gradually reasserted their control • October the French arrested the Prime Minister, whom they accused of being a traitor. He was tried in Saigon in 1946 and exiled to France. • once been willing to work with Ho Chi Minh and his communist forces, Son Ngoc Thanh now concluded it would be expedient to seek independence through the Thai and US governments, which both wanted to take advantage of waning French colonialism • abandoned his left-wing Khmer Issarak movement and joined the right-wing Khmer Serai guerrillas, anti-Sihanouk rebels who fought for the end of Cambodia's monarchy
NORODOM SIHANOUK – master politician? • 1946 et 1948: Etudes supérieures à l'Ecole d'Application de la Cavalerie et de l'Armée Blindée à SAUMUR (France) • Focus on negotiating independence from the French and expanding his own authority • popular with the people • created and destroyed political allegiances whenever it served his interest • French granted Cambodia significant autonomy in 1949 • economy and the military were still in the hands of the colonists
Colonial Education • Preah Sihanouk college, Kompong Cham • Lycee Sisowath (a top school), Phnom Penh • EFREI (École d'Ingénieurs des Technologies de l'Information et du Management) (Engineering School of Information Technologies and Management), Paris – founded in 1936 as the École Française de Radioélectricité (EFR). • late 40s and early 50s, many of these students associated with left-wing French intellectualism • Some who were anti-colonialist and pro-socialists joined the French communist party (PCF) • For many politically active Khmers studying in Paris, the communist party was a convenient way of taking part in the trendy Paris intellectual scene.
Ieng Sary, Saloth Sar, Son Sen • Khieu Samphan
Sihanouk's Rise to Powerand the Geneva Accords • Feb. 1953 "royal crusade for independence" • Visits to France, other European states and U.S. • travels were followed by a self-imposed "exile" near the ancient city of Angkor • October, 1953 France recognizes Cambodia’s total independence – why now? (Vietnam?) • France maintained some authority over economic policy, but foreign affairs and the military were now in the hands of Sihanouk.
Dien Bien Phu, March 13 – May 7, 1954 • French (13,000) • Vietnamese (50,000 and 200 artillery pieces) • General Vo Nguyen Giap • F -1,142 dead and 1,606 missing • V - 7,900 dead and over 15,000 wounded • Geneva Accords, July 1954
communist North Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh • Hanoi • South Vietnam led by prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem, who had been appointed by emperor Bao Dai • Saigon • Laos and Cambodia would be guaranteed their right to remain neutral, nonaligned nations • Geneva accords also scheduled Cambodia's first national democratic elections.
Sihanouk’s dilemma & solutions • as a constitutional monarch he would have few real powers in the new democratic government • relinquishing his claim to the monarchy, Prince Sihanouk (as he was now known) was free to pursue his political aspirations and run for office • Abdicated to his father, Prince Suramarit • high likelihood of Sihanouk winning the election • High popularity among the masses & his face was one of the only recognizable faces on the ballot for many rural Cambodians • Take no chances: closed opposition newspapers & police intimidated opposition leaders • "I am the natural leader of the country... and my authority has never been questioned."
Sangkum Reastr Niyum (People's Socialist Community) – Sihanouk’s Party • Khmer nationalism, loyalty to the monarch, struggle against injustice and corruption, and protection of the Buddhist religion were major themes in Sangkum ideology • party adopted a particularly conservative interpretation of Buddhism, common in the Theravada countries of Southeast Asia, that the social and economic inequalities among people were legitimate because of the workings of karma. • For the poorer classes, virtuous and obedient conduct opened up the possibility of being born into a higher station in a future life. The appeal to religion won the allegiance of the country's many Buddhist priests, who were a particularly influential group in rural villages.
Political opposition • Liberals, a conservative group made up of landowners and business leaders • Democrats, Khmer Independence Party of Son Ngoc Thanh - left-wing activists who supported a modern, French-style republic • Pracheachon “Citizens’” party, a pro-communist party made up of monks, teachers, and French-educated intellectuals
Elections, 1955 • Sangkum won 83% of the vote and all of the seats in the National Assembly • Voters intimidated by a voting system involving colored pieces of paper that had to be put into a box in full view of political figures, soldiers and police • Liberals and Democrats, quickly joined the Sangkum, abandoning their former parties in the fear of appearing to be against this burgeoning national movement • Khieu Samphan, the scholarly communist student who studied in Paris, joined the Sangkum to increase his political profile and personal security; privately, though, he remained a steadfast communist • Sihanouk as head of state – and dealing with the opposition in “debates”
By 1963, Sihanouk's overwhelming authority and strong-arm tactics had purged much of the opposition out of politics, causing some of the Pracheachon politicians and their communist supporters to flee for their lives into the Cambodian wilderness. • Exiles include: Son Sen, Ieng Sary and Saloth Sar, who had returned to Cambodia from France to become active members of a secretive communist movement initially supported by North Vietnam. Fled to eastern Cambodia. • "Red Khmers" - or in French, les Khmer Rouges (term used by Sihanouk)
The Cold War Threatens Cambodia: the U.S. & Communist Containment • tensions between North and South Vietnam • Sihanouk foreign policy: engage Ho Chi Minh – why? Also: China and Soviet Union • Western reaction? • Sihanouk's own ministers were steadfastly anti-Vietnamese = anti-Ho Chi Minh
Vice-President Richard Nixon • "He (Sihanouk) seemed prouder of his musical talents than of his political leadership, and he appeared to me to be totally unrealistic about the problems his country faced." • domino theory • post-WWII Eastern Europe and the Balkans • 1947 both Greece and Turkey
Review: Truman Doctrine 1947 support of Greece and Turkey $400 million • "To ensure the peaceful development of nations, free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations. The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members. We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose on them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States." • 1948 Marshall Plan, $12 billion to Western-Central Europe
Sec. of State, General George Marshall • "do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace." • Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan = cornerstones of U.S. foreign policy in Europe
Domino theory East & Southeast Asia • Chinese Communist revolution and victory, 1947-1949 • South Vietnam • Laos/Cambodia • Thailand, India, Indonesia, Australia • Etc. • former Indochina colonies - including Cambodia - were considered a collective domino waiting to topple