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Processes (and Threads)

Processes (and Threads)

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Processes (and Threads)

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  1. Silberschatz, ch. 3 p.81 - 116 Processes (and Threads) • Processes • Process features, scheduling • Inter-process communication • Threads • Classical IPC/Thread Problems

  2. Application- Process User- Process Utilities Shells, Editor, Compiler Libraries e.g. libx.a User- Process Application Application Application Programming Interface (API) e.g. open, close, read, write, fork, exec, kill Login Memory- Management File System Access Control Process/Thread Management Authentication Passwords Interrupt- System OS kernel Device Drivers Networking TCP/IP, PPP, ... I/O-System Hardware (centralized or distributed)

  3. Process • A process is a program in “execution”. Program is a passive entity (specification), while process is an active entity (execution of specification). • Process needs resources to accomplish its task (unit of work within the system) • CPU, memory, I/O, files • Initialization data • Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources • Typically system has many processes, some user, some kernel running concurrently on one or more CPUs • Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads

  4. Lec1: OS Process Management The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management: • Creating and deleting both user and system processes • Suspending and resuming processes • Providing mechanisms for • process communication • process synchronization • process deadlock handling

  5. The Process States Processes Termination Conditions - Normal exit (voluntary) - Error exit (voluntary) - Fatal error (involuntary) - Killed by another process (involuntary) blocked As a process executes, it changes state: • new: Process (parameters) initialized • ready: Waiting to be assigned to CPU • running: Instructions are being executed • waiting: Waiting for data/I/O or events • terminated: Finished execution

  6. Multiprogramming Example process # P4 P3 P2 P1 CPU slice time 

  7. Process Control Block (PCB) Information associated with each process: • Process state • Program counter/Stack Pointer • CPU registers • CPU scheduling information • Memory-management information • Resource accounting information • I/O status information

  8. CPU Switch From Process to Process Memory Proc 0 glob. var Proc 1 OS

  9. Implementation of Processes: Process Table Fields of a process table entry: 1 entry per process

  10. Process Scheduling? • Lowest layer of process-structured OS • handles interrupts, scheduling • Above that layer are sequential processes

  11. (Multi-level) Process Scheduling Queues • Job queue – set of *all* processes in the system • Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute • Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device • Processes migrate among the various queues

  12. Ready Queue + I/O Device Queues

  13. Representation of Process Scheduling

  14. Schedulers • Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue from mass-storage repository • Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process from ready queue should be executed next and allocates CPU • Windows/Unix skip “long term scheduler” and put all new process in memory for short term scheduler: simple but stability of load handling/balancing gets affected!

  15. Schedulers • Short-term scheduler is invoked very frequently (milliseconds)  (must be fast) • Long-term scheduler is invoked very infrequently (seconds, minutes)  (may be slow) • The long-term scheduler controls the degree of multiprogramming • Processes can be described as either: • I/O-bound process – spends more time doing I/O than computations, only short (or infrequent) CPU bursts • CPU-bound process – spends more time doing computations; only short (or infrequent) I/O bursts

  16. Addition of Medium Term Scheduling Provision for swap-in/swap-out of processes to control degree of multi-programming (swapping)

  17. Context Switch • When CPU switches to another process, the system must save the state of the old process and load the saved state for the new process • Context-switch time is overhead; the system does no useful work while switching • Time dependent on hardware support

  18. Process Issues • Management • Creation • Forking • Termination • Communication • Co-operating processes • Inter-process communication • …

  19. Process Creation • Parent process create children processes, which, in turn create other processes, forming a tree of (unique ID: PID) processes (inter-process ordering issues considered later) • Issue/Options: Resource sharing • Parent and children share all resources • Children share subset of parent’s resources • Parent and child share no resources • Issue/Options: Execution • Parent and children execute concurrently • Parent waits until some/all children terminate • Issue/Option: Address space • Child is a duplicate of parent • Child has another program loaded into it • UNIX • fork system call creates new (clone) process • exec system call used after a fork to replace the process’ memory space with a new program

  20. Tree of processes on a typical Solaris

  21. Process Hierarchies • Parent creates a child process, child processes can create its own process (differing in address spaces, different identity w.r.t local changes, sharing mem. image/files) • Forms a hierarchy • UNIX calls this a "process group“ • Parent – child relation cannot be dropped • Parent – child maintain distinct address spaces; initially child inherits/shares parent’s address space • Windows has no concept of process hierarchy • all processes are created equal sans heritage relations (though a parent can control a child using a “handle”) • distinct address space from start

  22. Process Creation (UNIX) • * fork system call creates new (clone) process • * exec system call used after a fork to replace the process’ memory space with a new program

  23. C Program: Forking Separate Process (UNIX) int main() { Pid_t pid; pid = fork(); /* fork another process */ if (pid < 0) { /* error occurred */ fprintf(stderr, "Fork Failed"); exit(-1); } else if (pid == 0) { /* child process */ execlp("/bin/ls", "ls", NULL); } else { /* parent process */ wait (NULL); /* parent will wait for the child to complete */ printf ("Child Complete"); exit(0); } }

  24. Process Termination • Process executes last statement and asks the operating system to delete it (exit()) • Output data from child to parent (via wait) • Process’ resources are deallocated by operating system • Parent may terminate execution of children processes (abort(), TerminateProcess()) if • Child has exceeded allocated resources • Task assigned to child is no longer required • Parent is exiting • Some operating system do not allow child to continue if its parent terminates (zombie control) • All children terminated - cascading termination

  25. Cooperating Processes • Independent process cannot affect or be affected by the execution of another process • Cooperating process can affect or be affected by the execution of another process • Advantages of process cooperation • Information sharing • Computation speed-up: subtask model for distributed systems • Modularity • Convenience: subtask for multiprogramming (not multiprocessing)

  26. Inter-process Communication (IPC) Models Message Passing Shared Memory

  27. Shared-Memory: Producer-Consumer Problem • Paradigm for cooperating processes, producer process produces information (eg. printer program) that is consumed by a consumer process (eg. printer) • unbounded-buffer places no practical limit on the size of the buffer • bounded-buffer assumes that there is a fixed buffer size buffer

  28. Process Ordering? • Concurrent consumer & producer access? • Serialization: RAW models! • Precedence sequences

  29. Inter-process Communication (IPC) • Mechanism for processes to communication and synchronize their actions [shared Mem: PC model; msg passing: IPC, RPC] • Message passing – processes communicate with each other without resorting to shared variables • IPC facility provides two operations: • send(message) – message size fixed or variable • receive(message) • If P and Q wish to communicate, they need to: • establish a communicationlink between them • exchange messages via send/receive • Implementation of communication link • physical (e.g., shared memory, hardware bus) • logical (e.g., logical properties)

  30. Link Implementation Questions • How are links established? • Can a link be associated with more than two processes? • How many links can there be between every pair of communicating processes? • What is the capacity of a link? • Is the size of a message that the link can accommodate fixed or variable? • Is a link unidirectional or bi-directional? • Direct Communication • Indirect Communication • Synchronization Aspects

  31. Direct Communication • Processes must name each other explicitly: • A: send (P, message) – A sends a message to process P • B: receive(Q, message) – B receives a message from process Q • Symmetric: send(P,msg); receive(Q, msg) • Asymmetric: send(P, msg); receive(pid, msg) • Properties of communication link • Links are established automatically • Link associated with exactly one pair of communicating processes • Between each pair there exists exactly one link • The link may be unidirectional, but is usually bi-directional • Queue models (zero, bounded, unbounded)

  32. Indirect Communication • Messages are directed and received from mailboxes (Unix) … also referred to as ports • Each mailbox (X) has a unique id send(X,msg), receive(X,msg) • Processes can communicate only if they share a mailbox • Unix pipes: cat xyz > lpr ; implicit FIFO mailbox • Properties of communication link • Link established only if processes share a common mailbox • A link may be associated with many processes • Each pair of processes may share several communication links • Link may be unidirectional or bi-directional

  33. Indirect Communication • Operations • create a new mailbox • send and receive messages through mailbox • destroy a mailbox • Primitives are defined as: send(A, message) – send a message to mailbox A receive(A, message) – receive amessage from mailbox A

  34. Indirect Communication • Mailbox sharing • P1, P2, and P3 share mailbox A • P1, sends; P2and P3 execute receive • Who gets the message? • Solution choices based on whether we • allow a link to be associated with at most two processes • allow only one process at a time to execute a receive operation • allow the system to select arbitrarily the receiver. Sender is notified who the receiver was.

  35. Issues: Synchronization • Message passing may be either blocking or non-blocking • Blocking is considered synchronous • Blocking send has the sender block until the message is received • Blocking receive has the receiver block until a message is available • “Rendezvous” across blocking send and receive • is this similar to shared memory communication? • Non-blocking is considered asynchronous • Non-blockingsend has the sender send the message and continue • Non-blockingreceive has the receiver receive a valid message or null

  36. Issues: Buffering (Direct or Indirect) • Messages of communicating processes reside in temporary queues. Queue of messages attached to the link; implemented in one of three ways 1.Zero capacity– 0 messages – no msg. waiting possible Sender must wait for receiver (rendezvous) 2.Bounded capacity– finite length of n messagesSender must wait (block) if link full 3.Unbounded capacity– infinite length Sender never waits (blocks)

  37. WinXP IPC Implem. (Local Call Procedure: LCP) • Client opens a handle to subsystem connection port • Client sends a conn. req. • Server creates 2 private conn. ports and returns handle to one of them to the client • Client and server use the corresponding port handle to send msgs. or callbacks (and to listen to replies) Server Client conn. req Conn. Port Object handle handle conn. port: client handle conn. port: server shared object

  38. Client-Server Communication • (Shared Memory Communication) • (Message Passing) • Sockets • Remote Procedure Calls • Remote Method Invocation (Java)

  39. Sockets • Socket: an endpoint for communication. A pair of communicating processes employ sockets at each end (1 per process) • Concatenation of IP address and port • The socket refers to port 1625 on host • Communication consists between a pair of sockets

  40. Socket Communication

  41. Remote Procedure Calls • Remote procedure call (RPC) abstracts procedure calls between processes on networked systems. • Stubs – client-side proxy for the actual procedure on the server. • The client-side stub locates the server and marshalls the parameters. • The server-side stub receives this message, unpacks the marshalled parameters, and peforms the procedure on the server.

  42. Client-Server Models Behind RPC server 1. Register 5. Send Reply 4. Send Req name server 3. Send Right client 2. Inquire

  43. Execution of RPC

  44. Remote Method Invocation • Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is a Java mechanism similar to RPCs. • RMI allows a Java program on one machine to invoke a method on a remote object.

  45. RMI: Marshalling Parameters

  46. Summary • Process • Definition, PCB • States (&changing states) • Creation, forking, termination • Process Queues • I/O queue • Ready queue • Scheduling • Long-term • Short-term • (Medium-term) • Communication • Shared memory • Message passing • Links • Naming, synchronization, buffering • May use • Sockets • RPC • RMI (Java)