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Fibres Fabrics

Fibres Fabrics

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Fibres Fabrics

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  1. Fibres Fabrics

  2. How do we make fabrics? • Some fibres can be used directly to make fabrics (eg felting) • Most fibres are twisted or spun into yarn before the construction of fabrics Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking

  3. Types of Yarns

  4. Yarn Twist - The twisting involved is the most important factor in determining the properties of the yarn • Without twist, the yarn would have no strength • Can be twisted in clockwise direction (S-twist) or anticlockwise (Z-twist) direction • Light is reflected in opposite ways and can be used alternately to create lustrous stripes in the fabric

  5. Let’s have a Yarn!!!! • Single Yarn • Produced during the first stage of the spinning process • Ply Yarn • Formed by twisting two or more single yarns • 8 twisted yarns = 8 ply • Stronger and thicker than single yarn • Cord Yarn • Formed by twisting ply yarns together • Very strong • Blended Yarn • When two or more different fibre yarns are twisted together

  6. The manufacturing process: • Once the yarn has been spun or twisted, there are a number of ways to turn it into cloth or fabric. Some examples are: • Weaving • Knitting • Knotting • Felting • bonding

  7. Weaving • The interlacing of two sets of yarns at right angles to each other Lengthwise Grain – WARP Crosswise Grain - WEFT

  8. Types of Weaves Plain – more interlacing and increased stability and durability Twill – identified by the diagonal lines in the weave. Yarns are usually spaced closed together creating a strong and most durable fabric (eg. denim, drill) Satin – yarns float over a number of yarns from the opposite direction. Encourages lustre in the fabric due to the longer interlacings. Pile – achieved with the use of extra Warp or Weft yarns within the ‘ground’ weave to give thickness and texture. This pile can be left as is or cut depending on the desired result. Increases absorbent abilities. Refer to page 302 of your textbook for further information.

  9. Knitting • The process of making fabrics by forming rows of interlinked loops of yarn, with each hoop dependent upon another to prevent it from coming undone. Warp knitting – interlooping along the length of the fabric - usually in an industrial setting/scale - more stable, less absorbent, less distortion of fabric Weft knitting – interlooping across the width of the fabric - can be in an industrial or domestic setting/scale - less stable, distorts more easily, more absorbent

  10. Fabric Characteristics

  11. Fabrics can be described by their characteristics or special features. These characteristics should be considered whenever: - we use fabrics to make textile items for the home - we want to wear fabrics - we need to wash or clean fabrics NOTE: Especially when choosing the fabric for your assessment....... The special characteristics of one particular fibre or fabric will make it more suitable for some jobs than others.

  12. Texture • The way a fabric feels • Thick or thin • Harsh or soft • Rough or smooth • Stiff or flexible • Fine or coarse

  13. Strength • How strong a fabric is • Weak (wool) • Weak when wet (rayon) • Strong (cotton) • Stronger when wet (cotton) • Very strong (nylon, polyester)

  14. Lustre • How shiny a fabric is • Dull/matt (wool) • Shiny (poplin) • Very shiny (satin)

  15. Moisture Absorbency • How well the fabric will absorb water • None (waterproofed) • Low (nylon) • Holds a lot but absorbs slowly (wool) • Very high (cotton, linen)

  16. Elasticity • How well a fibre or fabric will stretch and return to its original shape • Low stretch (twill weave) • Will stretch, but won’t go back • Stretches and goes back in original length (lycra) Resilience is the ability to return to the original form.

  17. Heat Conduction • How a fabric conducts heat • Will not conduct heat = warmer to wear (wool in garments traps heat) • Will conduct heat away = cooler to wear (cotton garments cooler in summer)

  18. Crease Resistance • How well a fabric recovers from creases after washing • Poor (pure cotton, rayon) • Average (wool creases fall out) • Good recovery (polyester, drip-dry cottons)

  19. Flammability • How easily a fabric burns • Very easily (cotton, rayon, open weaves, hairy fabrics) • Low (polyester, nylon melt) • Average (wool) • Poor (flame proofed fabrics, asbestos)

  20. Colour Fastness • How well the fabric keeps its colour • Fades in the sun (cotton) • Fades in sea water and sun (dyes in lycra) • Discolours in the sun (nylon) • Some dyes ‘run’ in hot water or with perspiration