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The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877

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The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877

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  1. The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 Chapter 16

  2. Results of the Civil War: • Over 620,000 men died • The South’s economy was destroyed • What about status of 3.5 million former slaves?

  3. The process of putting the nation back together after the Civil War (1865-1877) Reconstruction: The re-building of the Union (and the South in particular)

  4. 13th Amendment (1865) • “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” • Prohibited slavery.

  5. Reconstruction (1865-1877) When the North won the Civil War in 1865, the era of Reconstruction began Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge? What branchof governmentis in charge ofReconstruction? How should the North bring the South back into the Union? Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive? “Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers? Should freed blacks be given the right to vote? Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states? Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again? “New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor? How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South? How should the North rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? How should the North integrate and protect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?

  6. Lincoln’s Plan (1863) VERY lenient… • 10% of Confederate voters in southern states must: • Accept emancipation • Swear loyalty to the Union • High ranking Confederate officials could not vote or hold office unless pardoned by the President • Once these conditions were met, a state could return to the Union Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan: Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South

  7. Opposition to Lincoln’s Plan Wade-Davis Bill: • In 1864, Congress wrote its own plan: • 50% of state populations had to swear an oath of loyalty • Confederate leaders were not eligible to vote or participate in state governments • Did not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipation • Lincoln killed the bill using a pocket veto (it passed in the last 10 days of the legislative session) By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in place This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated

  8. April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth Watching the play, “Our American Cousin,” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC Lincoln’s Assassination

  9. After Lincoln’s Death, 3 Men: • Thaddeus Stevens • Charles Sumner • Andrew Johnson Radical Republicans Stevens Sumner

  10. Radical Republicans: • Members of the Republican Party who wanted to: • Punish the south for causing the Civil War • Fought to protect the rights of former slaves

  11. Thaddeus Stevens (Radical Republican) • Member of the House of Reps • Goal: economic opportunity for former slaves

  12. Charles Sumner (Radical Republican) • Member of US Senate • Goal: citizenship/political rights for former slaves

  13. Charles Sumner vs. Preston Brooks (1857)

  14. Andrew Johnson • Former Senator from TN, became Lincoln’s VP • A Democrat; Reconstruction plan similar to Lincoln’s • Issued 13,000 pardons • Unconcerned with rights of former slaves • Impeached in 1868

  15. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: • Appointed provisional state governors to lead state constitutional conventions • States must declare secession illegal & ratify the 13th Amend’t • Southern conventions reluctantly obeyed Johnson’s Reconstruction policy but passed Black Codes

  16. The Freedman’s Bureau The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship: Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies Promised “40 acres & a mule” Supervised labor contracts Created new schools

  17. Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes “Plenty to eat & nothing to do”

  18. Freedmen’s Bureau School Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats

  19. Congressional Reconstruction • Following Johnson’s impeachment, Congress controlled reconstruction. • Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts (1867-68): • The former Confederate States were militarily occupied by US troops • States could re-enter the Union once they ratified the 14th Amendment

  20. Map 16.1: The Reconstruction of the South

  21. The 14th Amendment In 1866, Congress voted to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau & passed a Civil Rights Bill to protect against Black Codes Johnson vetoed both bills, arguing that they violated states’ rights Congress overrode both vetoes (for the 1st time in U.S. history!)

  22. 14th Amendment (1868) • All persons born the US are citizens of the US • All citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under the law • Punished states that denied adult males the right to vote

  23. Johnson’s “Swing Around the Circle” In the 1866 mid-term elections, Johnson toured the South trying to convince voters to elect Congressmen who would reject the 14th Amendment The plan back-fired & Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses of Congress & gained control of every northern state

  24. Radical Reconstruction Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867: Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantations Allowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrage Ex-Confederates couldn’t vote Thaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877

  25. Created 5 military districts to enforce acts But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South… …and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals

  26. Impeachment and Removal of a President • Impeachment: to bring formal charges against the President (Majority vote in the House of Reps) • Trial/Removal: The President stands trial (the Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote is needed for removal)

  27. The Impeachment Crisis In Feb 1868, the House voted 126-47 to impeach Johnson, but the Senate fell 1 vote short of conviction & removal from office Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed Some Republicans refused to establish the precedent of removing a president But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did! For violating the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec of War Edwin Stanton

  28. The Johnson Impeachment & Senate Trial

  29. Johnson and Impeachment • Johnson was impeached, but not removed from office; he was ineffective following impeachment

  30. Reconstructing Southern Society How did Reconstruction impact the South? Southern whites wanted to keep newly-freed blacks inferior Freed blacks sought equality, property, education, & the vote Many Northerners moved South to make money or to "civilize" the region after the Civil War

  31. Sharecropping: A New Slavery? The Civil War destroyed Southern land, economy, & transportation Recovering meant finding a new labor system to replace slavery: The South tried a contract-labor system but it was ineffective Sharecropping “solved” the problem; black farmers worked on white planters’ land, but had to pay ¼ or ½ of their crops

  32. Sharecropping Problem: families accumulated debt to the landowner before their crop was sold; This cyclical process led to mortgages on future crops (crop lien system) By the end of 1865, most freedmen had returned to work on the same plantations on which they were previously enslaved

  33. Black Codes: A New Slavery? Violence & discrimination against freedmen by whites was common: Southerners used black codes to keep former slaves from voting, getting jobs, buying land 1,000s of blacks were murdered U.S. army did not have enough troopstokeep order in the South

  34. Republican Rule in the South In 1867, a Southern Republican Party was formed by: Northern “carpetbaggers” Southern “scalawags” interested in making money in the South Small, white farmers who wanted protection from creditors Blacks who wanted civil rights Many Southern blacks were elected to state & national gov’t Southern Republicans were only in power for 1-9 years but improved public education, welfare, & transportation

  35. Black House & Senate Delegates Black & White Political Participation “Colored Rule in a Reconstructed South” Black Republicans were accused of corruption & lack of civility

  36. Civil War & Reconstruction Review Examine “Reconstruction Plans…” & identify the major components of each section of the chart; Be prepared to discuss your answers to the discussion questions.

  37. Gaining Rights for Blacks In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” Freedmen fought for civil rights: Legalized marriage Used courts to assert claims against whites & other blacks Saw education as their 1st opportunity to become literate Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!

  38. Reconstruction in the Grant Administration (1869-1877)

  39. Arkansas Tennessee Louisiana Alabama South Carolina The Election of 1868 Florida North Carolina Georgia • In 1867, Thaddeus Stevens’ Radical Reconstruction plan was in place & a southern Republican party hoped to build a New South • By 1868, 8 of the 11 former Confederate states were accepted back into the Union after creating state constitutions & ratifying the 14th Amendment

  40. Re-Admission of the South

  41. The Election of 1868 • But, the U.S. had lots of problems: • Excessiveprintingofgreenbacks during the Civil War led to high inflation which hurt both the Northern & Southern economies • Southern “Redeemers” & secret societies tried to undermine Congressional attempts to reconstruct the South

  42. Democrats refused to re-nominate Johnson & chose NY governor Horatio Seymour The 1868 Presidential Election Republicans nominated Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant who had the support of Republicans in the North & South as well as Southern freedmen who voted for the 1st time

  43. In the election of 1868, both parties “waved the bloody shirt” to remind voters why the Civil War was fought Keeping freed blacks inferior was the most important goal of Southern Democrats Republican goal: Keep ex-Confederate leaders from restoring the “Old South” Southern DemocraticStrategy Southern RepublicanStrategy

  44. Deflations hurt indebted farmers the most In 1876, the Greenback Party was formed to support keeping “soft” money Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan • When Grant was elected, he supported: • Shifting back to gold (“sound” or “hard” money) to deflate American currency • Using a limited number of U.S. soldiers in the South to enforce Reconstruction efforts • Civil rights for freed blacks …but not enough to encourage widespread resentment among the Southern population Enough troops should be sent to work with state militias to protect blacks’ rights, reduce violence, & support Republican leaders in Southern state governments…

  45. Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan • Republicans sought equal protection for blacks; ratified the 15th Amendment in 1870: • Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race • But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications

  46. A Reign of Terror Against Blacks • From 1868 to 1872, southern Republicans were threatened by secret societies like Ku Klux Klan • Hoped to restore the “Old South” • Sought to restrict black voting • Oppose Republican state gov’ts • The KKK was successful in its terror campaigns, helping turn GA, NC, & TN to the Democratic Party

  47. The “Invisible Empire of the South” “Of course he wants to vote for the Democratic ticket”