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Today – Week 8. Informative presentations Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements Ethical public speaking The introduction, body, and conclusion Developing an effective outline Critiquing a presentation. Public Speaking Basics.
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Today – Week 8 • Informative presentations • Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements • Ethical public speaking • The introduction, body, and conclusion • Developing an effective outline • Critiquing a presentation
“The human brain starts working the moment you’re born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public.” - George Jessel
How is public speaking similar to everyday conversation? How is it different?
What are the four ways we generally deliver speeches? • Extemporaneous
What qualities do we associate with an effective presentation and presenter?
“According to most studies, people’s number one fear is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two. Does that sound right? This means to the average person, if you go to a funeral, you’re better off in the casket than doing the eulogy.” - Jerry Seinfeld
“There are only two types of speakers in the world: one, the nervous and, two, liars.” - Mark Twain
Nervousness is Normal
First Impressions Creating the illusion of competency
From Negative to Positive • Experience • Preparation • Think positive • Breathe • Focus on message • Don’t expect perfection
“There are always three speeches, for every one you actually gave. The one you practiced, the one you gave, and the one you wish you gave.” - Dale Carnegie
Developing Your First Speech • Know your objective • Limit your points • Organize: introduction, body, conclusion • Fit the time limit • Rehearse out loud • Team feedback • Revise
"It takes one hourof preparation foreach minute of presentation time." - Wayne Burgraff
Informative Presentation Guidelines • Limit the amount of information • Adjust level of complexity • Stress relevance and usefulness • Relate new information to old • Make speech easy to remember • Focus audience attention
Selecting Topic & Purpose • Guidelines for your speech proposals and outlines . . . • What is the topic? • What is the general purpose? • What is the specific purpose? • What is the central idea?
Choosing a Topic “The best way to sound like you know what you're talking about is to know what you're talking about.” -- Author Unknown
General Purpose The broad goal of a speech.
"If you don't know what you want to achieve in your presentation your audience never will." - Harvey Diamond
Specific Purpose Statement A single phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
Specific Purpose Guidelines • Express as a statement, not question • Avoid figurative language • Limit to one distinct idea • Avoid being too vague or general
Write as a full infinitive phrase Specific Purpose Guidelines Ineffective:Calendars More Effective:To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today.
Express as a statement, not question Specific Purpose Guidelines Ineffective:Is the U.S. space program necessary? More Effective:To persuade my audience that the U.S. space program provides many important bene- fits to people here on earth.
Avoid figurative language Specific Purpose Guidelines Ineffective:To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool. More Effective:To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health.
One distinct idea Specific Purpose Guidelines Ineffective:To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to Habitat for Humanity.
More effective:To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors. OR More effective:To persuade my audience to donate time to Habitat for Humanity.
Not too vague or general Specific Purpose Guidelines Ineffective:To inform my audience about the Civil War. More Effective:To inform my audience about the role of African-American soldiers in the Civil War.
Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose • Does it meet the assignment? • Can I accomplish it in the time allotted? • Is it relevant to my audience? • Too trivial? • Too technical?
Central Idea A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
“If you can't write your message in a sentence, you can't say it in an hour.” - Dianna Booher
Guidelines for the Central Idea • Do not be vague or overly general • Express as a full sentence • Do not express as a question • Avoid figurative language
Guidelines for the Central Idea Not too general Ineffective:Paying college athletes a salary is a good idea.
More Effective:Because college athletes in such as revenue-producing sports football and basketball generate millions of dollars in revenue for their schools, the NCAA should allow such athletes to receive a $250 monthly salary as part of their scholarships.
Guidelines for the Central Idea Complete sentence Ineffective:Use of the laser. More Effective: The laser is a highly versatile device with important uses in medicine, industry, art, and communications.
Guidelines for the Central Idea Not a question Ineffective:How does indoor soccer differ from outdoor soccer?
More Effective:Played on a smaller, enclosed field that resembles a hockey rink with artificial turf, indoor soccer involves faster action, more scoring, and different strategies than outdoor soccer.
Guidelines for the Central Idea Avoid figurative language Ineffective:Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula is an awesome place for a vacation.
More Effective:Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula has many attractions for vacationers, including a warm climate, excellent food, and extensive Mayan ruins.
General Purpose:To inform Specific Purpose:To inform my audience of the three major races in alpine skiing. Central Idea:The three major races in alpine skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the giant slalom.