Noun=. Person, Place or Thing. Who or what a clause, phrase or sentence is about. Do: Find five nouns in the room and write them down. 1. 2. Proper Nouns: a specific person place or object. They begin with a capital letter. Write down three. Kinds of Nouns:.
Noun= Person, Place or Thing. Who or what a clause, phrase or sentence is about. Do: Find five nouns in the room and write them down. 1. 2. Proper Nouns: a specific person place or object. They begin with a capital letter. Write down three.
Kinds of Nouns: Proper nouns name particular people, places, or things that are special enough to be always capitalized. Example: New Jersey, Sony, Atlantic Ocean, Walnut Street Collective Nouns: a noun that refers to a group that may be considered either as individuals or one large entity. Example: class, navy, fleet, band
Compound Nouns There are three forms of compound nouns: A single word compound in which words are melded together like: firefly, childlike, redhead, notebook. The hyphenated compound noun: daughter-in-law or six-year-old. The separate word compound noun: post office, real estate, middle class, half sister
Pronoun Pronoun =Take the position and function of nouns, kind of like a stunt double! They keep nouns from getting repetitive-they do a lot of work! Examples = I, you, me, he, she, it, they, we, him, her, us, them. Find the pronoun: Shelby likes talking to Dave. She hopes he will call her in the morning.
Verb A verb =What a subject is doing; what is being done to it; a state of being. Write down five things people are doing right now… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the verb in the sentences. 1.Erin baked a pie yesterday. 2. Please set the table for out delicious dinner.
Helping Verbs Helping/Auxiliary verbs= words used to help main verbs-there are 23 in the English language. Most common: Be, is, are, have, do, am, will, was, shall, might, can, can’t, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need, have been, etc. Identify the helping verb: Frank can go to the movies. Jamie must have had enough money for the ticket.
Adjectives Adjective= an adjective’s job is to modify(change) a noun or pronoun. They will always be near the noun or pronoun they are describing. Well chosen adjectives are added to increase interest in writing. List five adjectives here: 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the adjective(s) in the sentence: My lunch was good, hers was better, and yours was the best.
Adverbs Adverbs=words that modify(change) verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs answer: how(quickly), when(now, then), where(here, there, down), in what way, how much(totally), how often(rarely), under what condition… Interrogative adverbs=begins a sentence with why, where, how, when. Easiest adverbs to identify end in “ly.” A few examples: today, soon, home, out, hardly, always, never, again…
Conjunctions Conjunction=a word that connects words or groups of words to each other. To connect words and phrases together, use the conjunction and. Examples: Lisa and Miguel are coming with us. She went to the store and bought some new shoes. When a sentence has two things that are in conflict or that are opposites, use the conjunction but. Examples: We have a lot in common, but we do not like the same kind of music. When one thing is a result of another, use the conjunction so.
When one thing is a result of another, use the conjunction so. Example: Uncle Kevin is coming to visit, so I have to go home early. When there is a choice between two or more options, use the conjunction or: Example: We can go to the movies or to the mall. And, But, Or and So
Prepositions (prep) A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount. In the sentence She went to the store, to is a preposition which shows direction. In the sentence He came by bus, by is a preposition which shows manner(or how).
Prepositions In the sentence They will be here at three o'clock, at is a preposition which showstime. In the sentence It is under the table, under is a preposition which shows place. A preposition is almost always before a noun or pronoun. A preposition and the object of the preposition together is called a prepositional phrase. At home: At=Preposition, home=object (noun)
Most Common: At, for, in, by, on, out, to, under, with, within, without.
Interjections!!! An interjection is a word that expresses emotion. An interjection can be left out of a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. Commonly used interjections include aha, ouch, wow, oh, yikes, hurray, oops, well, and yippee. Interjections that express strong emotion are followed by an exclamation point. EXAMPLES Yikes! You scared me! What a great ending! Wow!
Interjections Interjections that express mild emotion are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. EXAMPLES : Well, I guess we will have to start again. That tree is, oh, about three hundred years old. (Notice that an interjection in the middle of a sentence is set off by two commas.)
What is wrong with these sentences? Standing on the bridge. The bird worked hard. Jumping through the hoop.
Sentences and Sentence Fragments A Sentence fragment is a group of words that looks like a sentence but that does not contain both a subject and a verb does not express a complete thought.
Subjects and Predicates Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates. The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. Example: Across America, Davy Crockett is a popular legendary hero The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. Example: The class read several tales about his adventures.
Simple and Complete Subjects The simple subject is the main work or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about The complete subject consists of all the words that tell whom or what a sentence is about. Simple subject: This book on biographies will provide information for my report. Compound Subject: This book on biographies will provide information for my report.
Simple and Complete Predicates The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. Example: Sara goes to the mall every weekend. The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that modify the verb and complete its meaning. Example: Sara goes to the movies every weekend.
Verb Phrases Some simple predicates, or verbs, consist of more than one word. (verbs include one or more helping verbs) Examples: I will be studying for the next two hours. Have you looked out the window today? What does the computer error mean?
Compound Subjects A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb. Example: Numerous trees and bushes respond to seasonal weather changes. Pictures of my family and friends cover my bedroom wall.
Pronouns and Antecedents A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. (a stunt double) The word that a pronoun stands for, or refers to, is called its antecedent. Example: John said he would wash his car this afternoon. I told myselfnot to worry.
Pronoun and Antecedents Singular antecedents such as man, person, customer, employee, everybody, one, anyone, and each are referred to by a singular pronoun. Example: 1. Each of these ideas has its merits.2. Any student who wants to change a course must first consult his or her advisor.3. Everyone with an expense account must present receipts for all of his or her expenses. Two or more antecedents joined by and are referred to by a plural pronoun. Example: Mr. Jones and his assistant are examining their options.
Clauses A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as a part of a sentence. A clause that expresses a complete thought is called and independent clause. Example: I write when I am angry or confused. A clause that does not make sense by itself is called a subordinate clause. Example: I write when I am angry or confused.
Direct Objects A direct object follows an action verb and answers the question “Whom?” or “What?” It is always a noun or a pronoun. Not all action verbs require direct objects. Joe likes apples and corn. The direct objects “apples” and “corn” answer “Joe likes what?” The boy in the red coat bought a new kite. “Kite” answers “The boy bought what?” Henry waited on the corner. There is no direct object following the action verb “waited.”
Indirect Objects An indirect object comes between the action verb and the direct object and answers the question “To whom?” or “For whom?” It is always a noun or pronoun and never appears by itself without a direct object. Joe gave me an apple. The indirect object “me” answers “Joe gave an apple to whom?” “Me” comes between the action verb “gave” and the direct object “apple.” (There is no indirect object in these sentences: “Joe gave to me an apple,” or “Joe gave an apple to me.”)
Hyphens - Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. Example: When the school year ends each sum-mer, I am always ready for a vacation. Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine. Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex-, self-, all-(all-star) and suffixes –elect, -free (sugar-free)
Comma Definition: A punctuation mark (,) used to indicate the separation of elements within a sentence. Rule #1- After “yes” or “no” in a sentence. Yes, I love the rain. No, I hate German Shepherds!
Commas Rule #2 Use a comma to separate the day or month from the year. Example: January 10th, 2006. Rule #3Use a Comma to separate things in a series or actions. Example: I need to buy bread, milk, and butter at the store.
Let’s Try This The cute soft frisky ferret will bite your fingers if you try to pick him up.
The hot spicy appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean shiny kitchen counter. , , ,
Commas Rule #4 Use commas before and after a quotation in a sentence. Example: Then my doctor said, “Eating poodles is bad for your health!”
Comma before or after a direct address.(someone’s name) Rule #5 A comma is placed before or after a specific name to describe who us receiving the information. Example: Sweetheart, have you seen my socks? Marvin Mr. Trump Dad Sweetheart
Compare this sentence … I have already eaten Marvin. Burp! Burp
… to this sentence. No thank you! I have already eaten,Marvin.
Commas for the Appositive Rule #5 Use commas to separate information about the subject of a sentence. The information is not always necessary for the sentence. This is an appositive noun phrase. The poodle, a yapping fur ball, was not as tasty as the human foot Ienjoyed last week.
Patrick always carries an English handbook with him, even to basketball games so that he can check other people’s grammar wherever he goes. ,
Commas Rule # 6 Insert a comma between two independent clauses that are joined with a coordinating conjunction. (FANBOYS) Example: My dog chased three rabbits out of the woods, but they all got away.
Commas Rule # 7Use commas to separate subordinate clauses at the beginning of sentences. Before eating three candy bars, I should have thought of the consequences.
The colon is made with two periods. 11:35 pm It is used for time. It comes before a list. I will need the following items from the store: bananas, grapes, watermelon, and lemons.
Comma rules continued 4. Use a comma to separate the day or month from the year. Example: January 10th, 2006. 5. Use a Comma to separate things in a series. Example: I need to buy bread, milk, and butter at the store. 6. Use commas before and after a quotation in a sentence. Example: “What I really want,” said Amir, “is some lemonade.” 7. Use a comma after common introductory words in a sentence, like however, clearly, and well. Example: However, we should still investigate the missing painting.
8. Insert a comma between two independent clauses that are joined with a coordinating conjunction. My dog chased three rabbits out of the woods, but they all got away. 9. Use commas to separate subordinate clauses at the beginning of sentences. Before eating three candy bars, I should have thought of the consequences
10. Use commas to set off one or more words that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Lebron James, as you can see in this video here, dominates all his opponents. 11. Use commas to set off nonessential items: clauses, participial phrases, appositives. Barrack Obama, the President of the United States, might have a 4th of July eating contest at the White House.
Independent and Dependent Clauses Independent Clause An independent clause makes a statement or asks a question that can act as a complete sentence. Example: The dog barks Dependent Clause A dependent clause cannot act as a complete sentence because it begins with a subordinating word, such as when, because, if, whoever, etc. Example: When the dog barks.
Simple Sentence A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clause. Example: Thelma sells automobiles. A simple sentence may have a compound subject, (Jack and Jill, oranges and apples) and compound verb, (walks and sings) or both. Example: Thelma and Leo buy and sell automobiles.
Compound Sentence The Compound Sentence :A compound sentence is made up of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so) and a comma or by a semicolon alone. FANBOYS-FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, OR,YET,SO Example: The pirate captain lost her treasure map, but she still found the buried treasure. A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.
Complex Sentence A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. Example: Because the soup was too cold, I warmed it in the microwave. A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
Reading a Passage 1. Read Passage 2. Number paragraphs or lines of poetry. 3. Key terms author vocabulary words transition words names dates numbers historical events. 4. _____________ author’s claims facts descriptions evidence of a position or opinion cause and effect 5. Words or phrases not understood Then use contact clues to figure it out.
Compound-Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence is comprised of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. Example: Though Mitchell prefers watching romantic films, he rented the latest spy thriller, and he enjoyed it very much. Example: Laura forgot her friend's birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally remembered.
Advertising Assignment 50 points A new life, adventure, riches! All of these are promised to those who are willing to take a risk and move out west. In a bid to encourage people to migrate west advertisements were used to sell the dream! Your assignment: Design a colored advertisement promoting life in the west. Use the following words in your advertisement: Oregon, California, Texas, Manifest Destiny, gold, land, North America. Manifest Destiny must be defined in your own words on the advertisement Neatness, creativity, spelling and grammar will be evaluated-do you best!