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Social Inequality Social Inequality and Social Movements PowerPoint Presentation
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Social Inequality Social Inequality and Social Movements

Social Inequality Social Inequality and Social Movements

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Social Inequality Social Inequality and Social Movements

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  1. Social InequalitySocial Inequality and Social Movements Roderick Graham Fordham University

  2. Attacks on Inequality through Social Movements We will look at three social movements • The Labor Movement • The Civil Rights Movement • The Women’s Movement • Movements occur in certain political, economic, and social contexts…(they enable or constrain a movement) • This lecture is given as a narrative – a history of a movement, its successes, its failures

  3. The Labor Movement Late 1800’s to WWI During this period, the labor movement began to develop, however the economic and social context was not amenable to labor power… • Economic Context – leading to increase misery for workers • Small companies merged with larger ones, giving rise to centralized, industrial organizations • Factories became more mechanized and simplified allowing for unskilled workers to do tasks • Foremen took control of shop floor

  4. The Labor Movement Late 1800’s to WWI During this period, the labor movement began to develop, however the economic and social context was not amenable to labor power… • Social Context – leading to inability to organize • Increased productivity led to a demand for workers, and companies hired native whites, immigrants, and blacks • Heterogeneous laborers led to hostility and decreased solidarity • Different organizations within the movement disagreed on how to proceed

  5. The Labor Movement Late 1800’s to WWI During this period, the labor movement began to develop, however the economic and social context was not amenable to labor power… • Business did not want laborers to organize. Thus, they: • Brought in unskilled immigrants to replaced native workers, and blacks/immigrants as strikebreakers • Jobs were divided into simple tasks • Business gave surface concessions to labor – welfare capitalism. • Fought against closed union shops

  6. The Labor Movement 1920’s through Great Depression This period marked the best of times and worst of times for the labor movement. Pro-Business and Depression (Worst of Times) • Because of pro-business environment of the 20’s little interest was placed on the needs of workers • Because of the great depression, unemployment was at its highest

  7. The Labor Movement 1920’s through Great Depression This period marked the best of times and worst of times for the labor movement. The New Deal (Best of Times) • Warner Act of 1935 • National office to investigate unfair labor practices • Minimum wage established • Maximum work hours established • Union enrollment increases dramatically • CIO formed to include minorities

  8. The Labor Movement Post WWII This period has seen a general decrease in union membership, and a general lack of direction for the labor movement • Public corruption scandals have hurt union’s image • Ethnic and gender bias within unions weakened strength • Unions are going against the “ideological tide” of globalization and free markets

  9. The New Look of Labor

  10. The Civil Rights Movement Before 1950’s During this time African-Americans did not have the economic, political, and educational resources to mount a sustained movement. However changes occurred that laid the foundation. Economic Changes • The rapid industrialization of the US pushed blacks out of agriculture and into major industrial centers - “Great Migrations I and II”

  11. The Civil Rights Movement Before 1950’s During this time African-Americans did not have the economic, political, and educational resources to mount a sustained movement. However changes occurred that laid the foundation. Social Changes • Better Education • Cultural standouts leading to Black Pride (Harlem Renaissance, Richard Wright) • Development of black institutions (colleges, churches, civic organizations)

  12. The Civil Rights Movement Before 1950’s During this time African-Americans did not have the economic, political, and educational resources to mount a sustained movement. However changes occurred that laid the foundation. Political Changes • Blacks holding political office • Politicians courting the black vote

  13. The Civil Rights Movement 1950’s and 1960’s The civil rights movement was a successful attempt at addressing inequality between black and white. The tactics used and the concessions gained are landmarks in US history Tactics • Bus Boycotts • Sit-ins • Non-violent protests • Freedom Rides

  14. Non-Violent Tactics

  15. The Civil Rights Movement 1950’s and 1960’s The civil rights movement was a successful attempt at addressing inequality between black and white. The tactics used and the concessions gained are landmarks in US history Victories • Brown vs. Board of Education • Civil Rights Act • Voting Rights Act

  16. The Civil Rights Movement Late 1960’s to Present Changes in the desires of blacks and in the social structure of the US has weakened the movement. Changes in the Desires of Blacks • Non-violent approach was not embraced by young blacks • Black power and militant stances turned off potential white supporters • Emphasis moved from middle class civil rights issues (integration) to militant and economic power issues (separation)

  17. The Civil Rights Movement Late 1960’s to Present Changes in the desires of blacks and in the social structure of the US has weakened the movement. Changes in the Social Structure • New immigrant groups siphoned national attention away from black causes • Conservative agenda in Washington (republican presidents) • General economic conditions

  18. The Women’s Movement Before WWII The women’s movement early members were upper class white women. The movement grew, and its singular moment was the passage of Women’s Suffrage. Social Exclusion • Only women possessing the qualities of a “lady” were admitted into the movement • Lower class white women excluded because of the work they often did (housekeeping, nanny, menial labor) • Black women were also excluded

  19. The Women’s Movement Before WWII The women’s movement early members were upper class white women. The movement grew, and its singular moment was the passage of Women’s Suffrage. Focusing on Women’s Suffrage • Early issues included rights over children, property rights, and rights to file for divorce • The NWP (National Woman’s Party) rose to prominence and focused on the single goal of women’s suffrage • 19th Amendment passed in 1920

  20. The Women’s Movement WWII to 1960’s The movement stalled. However the conditions for a resurgence of the movement developed. Seeds for the Future • Increased economic power • Women were increasingly in the workforce and they developed first hand knowledge of the indignities women face • Civil Rights Movement • Sexual Revolution

  21. The Women’s Movement Modern Movement The current movement has faced counterattacks from other groups in society, but has become relatively more inclusive. Counterattacks • New Right conservatives • Media portrayals of feminists as “lesbian, humorless, ideologues” • Blacks and working class women harbor different views of women’s place in society

  22. Counterattacks!

  23. The Women’s Movement Modern Movement The current movement has faced counterattacks from other groups in society, but has become relatively more inclusive. Contours of the Modern Movement • Prominent female intellectuals legitimize the movement • Combination of national organizations (NOW) and local feminist groups in communities and on college campuses • Black women and youth marginalized by other political movements joined feminist movement

  24. END