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Ecology

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Ecology

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  1. Ecology • Biomes • Behavior • Populations • Community • Symbiosis • Competition • Succession • Ecosystems

  2. Density dependant inhibition • Density independent inhibition • R selected species • K selected species

  3. If a meteor impact or volcanic eruption injected a lot of dust into the atmosphere and reduced sunlight reaching Earth's surface by 70% for one year, all of the following marine communities would be greatly affected except a • deep-sea vent community. • coral reef community. • benthic community. • pelagic community. • estuary community.

  4. As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation? • The growth rate will not change. • The growth rate will approach zero. • The population will show an Allee effect. • The population will increase exponentially. • The carrying capacity of the environment will increase.

  5. In which of the following habitats would you expect to find the largest number of K-selected individuals? • an abandoned field in Ohio • the sand dunes south of Lake Michigan • the rain forests of Brazil • south Florida after a hurricane • a newly emergent volcanic island

  6. The following question refers to the figure below, which depicts the age structure of three populations

  7. Assuming these age structure diagrams describe human populations, in which population is unemployment likely to be most severe in the future? • I • II • III • No differences in the magnitude of future unemployment would be expected among these populations. • It is not possible to infer anything about future social conditions from age structure diagrams.

  8. Which of the following variables is (are) important in contributing to the rapid growth of human populations? • the high percentage of young people • the average age to first give birth • carrying capacity of the environment • only A and B • A, B, and C

  9. Clear-cutting tropical forests yields agricultural land with limited productivity because • it is too hot in the tropics for most food crops. • the tropical forest regrows rapidly and chokes out agricultural crops. • few of the ecosystem’s nutrients are stored in the soil; most are in the forest trees. • phosphorus, not nitrogen, is the limiting nutrient in those soils. • decomposition rates are high but primary production is low in the tropics.

  10. Use the figure below to answer the following questions (2 and 3). Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Each letter is a species. The arrows represent energy flow. Which species is autotrophic? A B C D E

  11. Species C makes its predators sick. Which species is most likely to benefit from being a mimic of C? * • A • B • C • D • E

  12. If the flow of energy in an Arctic ecosystem goes through a simple food chain from seaweeds to fish to seals to polar bears, then which of the following is true? • Polar bears can provide more food for Eskimos than seals can. • The total energy content of the seaweeds is lower than that of the seals. • Polar bear meat probably contains the highest concentrations of fat-soluble toxins. • Seals are more numerous than fish. • The carnivores can provide more food for the Eskimos than the herbivores can.

  13. AP Labs and Essays Lab 12 Lab 11 1997, # 1 1997, # 3 (lab) 1998, # 4 2002, # 2 2003, # 3

  14. Symbiotic Relationships • Parasitism • Mutualism • Commensualism

  15. Which of the following is true about imprinting? It may be triggered by visual or chemical stimuli. It happens to many adult animals, but not to their young. It is a type of learning involving no innate behavior. It occurs only in birds. It causes behaviors that last for only a short time (the critical period).

  16. Every morning at the same time John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks John noticed that the fish would rise to the top of the tank as soon as he would enter the room. This is a good example of habituation. imprinting. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. maturation.

  17. A dog learns that it will get a treat when it barks. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior? The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern. The dog is performing a social behavior. The dog is trying to protect its territory. The dog has been classically conditioned. The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning.

  18. The presence of altruistic behavior in animals is most likely due to kin selection, a theory that maintains that aggression between sexes promotes the survival of the fittest individuals. genes enhance survival of copies of themselves by directing organisms to assist others who share those genes. companionship is advantageous to animals because in the future they can help each other. critical thinking abilities are normal traits for animals and they have arisen, like other traits, through natural selection. natural selection has generally favored the evolution of exaggerated aggressive and submissive behaviors to resolve conflict without grave harm to participants.

  19. As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation? The growth rate will not change. The growth rate will approach zero. The population will show an Allee effect. The population will increase exponentially. The carrying capacity of the environment will increase.

  20. In which of the following habitats would you expect to find the largest number of K-selected individuals? an abandoned field in Ohio the sand dunes south of Lake Michigan the rain forests of Brazil south Florida after a hurricane a newly emergent volcanic island

  21. The following question refers to the figure below, which depicts the age structure of three populations

  22. Assuming these age structure diagrams describe human populations, in which population is unemployment likely to be most severe in the future? I II III No differences in the magnitude of future unemployment would be expected among these populations. It is not possible to infer anything about future social conditions from age structure diagrams.

  23. Why do most food chains consist of only three to five links? * There are only five trophic levels: producers; primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers; and decomposers. Most communities are controlled bottom-up by mineral nutrient supply, and few communities have enough nutrients to support more links. The dominant species in most communities consumes the majority of prey; thus, not enough food is left to support higher predators. According to the energetic hypothesis, the inefficiency of energy transfer from one trophic level to the next limits the number of links that can exist. According to the trophic cascade model, increasing the biomass of top trophic levels causes a decrease in the biomass of lower levels, so that the top levels can no longer be supported.

  24. Two barnacles, Balanus and Chthamalus, can both survive on the lower rocks just above the low tide line on the Scottish coast, but only Balanus actually does so, with Chthamalus adopting a higher zone. Which of the following best accounts for this niche separation? competitive exclusion predation of Chthamalus by Balanus cooperative displacement primary succession mutualism

  25. The following questions refer to the diagram in Figure 53.2 of five islands formed at about the same time near a particular mainland. Island with the greatest number of species A B C D E

  26. Island with the lowest extinction rate A B C D E

  27. Use the figure below to answer the following questions (2 and 3). Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Each letter is a species. The arrows represent energy flow. Which species is autotrophic? A B C D E

  28. Species C makes its predators sick. Which species is most likely to benefit from being a mimic of C? * A B C D E