Improving Campus Sustainability at Florida Tech Presented by the students of ENS4300/ENS5300 April 19, 2007
Introduction • Transportation • Student, Teachers, and Faculty • Facilities and Fleets Vehicles • Athletics • Introducing Alternative Energies to Florida Tech • Ground Based Cooling Systems • Solar and Wind Power • Biogas • Biodiesel • Energy Conservation • Dorms/ Apartments • Classrooms and Labs • Eating Facilities • Clemente Center • Outdoor Lighting • Florida Tech Recycling • Traditional Recycling • Water Recycling • Composting • Chemical • The Future of Recycling at Florida Tech • Conclusions
Florida TechTransportation Kevin Donnelly Mehiel Patel Makemba McGuire Group Leader: Dustin Phelps
Major Contributors Personal Transportation Flight School Security Waste Management Major Recommendations Obtain more accurate quantities of fuel usage, including breakdown by source Investigate carpooling and shuttle services Investigate Bio-diesel Alternative Phase in electric and hybrid vehicles where possible. Landscaping Maintenance Fleet Golf Cart Fleet Athletics Areas of Focus
PersonalTransportation • 3,161 registered vehicles • 1,274 on-campus students • Commuting - 2,400 MTCDE • Recommendations • More accurate estimate of CO2 contributions • Study interest and consider incentives program • Computer program to automate and organize participants and schedules • Shuttle programs
FIT Flight Program • Data • 30 planes • 1,000 hours per year • ~300,000 gallons per year total • 3,350 MTCDE • Nine-Passenger Van Shuttle • Recommendations • Further research and thought is required • Flight simulator? • Explore ways of improving efficiency of Airport Shuttle
Security and HR • Data • Security = 4 gas powered golf carts, 2 SUV, 1 Bike • ~ 5 gallons of gasoline per day per cart • ~ 50 gallons per week • HR = 33 carts • 23 electric, • 10 gas (~1-2 gal/wk) • Recommendations • Gradually phase in electric carts and hybrid SUV • Offer incentives to patrolling on bike • Design patrolling routes to accommodate electric carts
Maintenance and Facilities • Data • Total of 64, of which 8 are light industrial • Includes landscaping, maintenance, and vehicle repair • ~28,500 gal gasoline • ~3,000 gal diesel • Waste management • 2 Trucks (2 mpg diesel) • ~ 165 gallons per month • All these vehicles, except waste management vehicles, are fuelled on campus but drive to ARL daily • Recommendations • Hybrids • Move ARL – currently in progress • Bio diesel (see Bio diesel section)
Athletics • Data • 256 Athletes • 3 Campus vans for travel • Rent Lynx buses when no vans • 136 away games • Cost of transportation ~ $84,470 • Recommendations • Encourage charters to use bio-diesel • Phase in hybrid passenger vans
Introducing Alternative Energies to Florida Tech Jared Doescher Derek Pryor David Farris Group Leader: Elisabeth McCormack
Areas of Focus • Ground Coupled Air Conditioning System • Solar and Wind Power • Biogas • Biodiesel
Ground Coupled A/C • Use ground coupled A/C instead of air-air A/C System • Use of the ground as a heat sink or heat source • Reduction of energy usage
Solar Heating, Electricity and Wind Currently, 500 square feet of solar cells producing 1000kwh a month on Olin Wind turbine on Roberts for data Solar trailer outside of Link building can power a small scooter or PC
Solar Electricity 4.7 Hours of sunlight on average in Florida Estimated 300,000 square feet of useable roof area Potential of 600,000kwh a month
Wind Mostly capturing a sea breeze Turbines need to be elevated Wind must be blowing at least 6 mph to spin Only two practical buildings would be Roberts and Crawford
Solar Heating Solar collectors used to capture solar radiation and transfer it to water Large insulated tanks used to store warmed water Can be used with traditional heating methods
Biogas Production • Biodigestor systems use natural bacteria to breakdown organic material. The gas produced is very similar to natural gas and can be used in the same applications. • Theoretically any organic material will break down in a digester system. Many systems use animal manures as a feedstock, but food waste has significant potential. The byproduct of the digestion process is a slurry that can be used as an excellent soil additive.
Biogas Production at Florida Tech • Florida Tech’s food service prepares approximately 4000 meals a day and produces at least 300 pounds of food waste daily. • A biogas system on campus could produce 16 therms, or 1600 ft3 of biogas, very close to the gas requirements of the Sub cafeteria. • If biogas could be used to replace natural gas at just the Student Union, the school would save over $12,000 annually. Gas Consumption Spreadsheet. Florida Tech Facilities. Personal Communication from Cheryl Smith received 10 Apr 07.
Biodiesel • Cleaner and less harmful to everyone • Works just like regular diesel fuel • Using waste cooking oil ~ 900 gallons of biodiesel could be made each semester • ~4,500gals of mixed fuel (20% biodiesel) • Prebuilt systems start at $7,000 • Potential to join research into biodiesel
Energy Conservationat Florida Tech Amy Dickson Heather Sommers Amanda Boyce Group Leader: Melissa Tribou
Areas of Focus • Classrooms and Labs • Eating Facilities • Campus Housing • Clemente Center • Outdoor Lighting
Overall Goals for Classrooms and Labs • All Classroom and Laboratory buildings should be LEED certified • Florida Tech currently is not building to these standards due to higher costs • Studies indicate that students test 20% better in LEED certified buildings • Reducing energy use • Improving appliance efficiency • Reducing energy demand • Case Study: Moss Landing, CA • 1.8% cost increase for 33 buildings • 5 had no increase in cost
W. Olin Engineering Complex • Three floors • 70,000-square-foot • 142-seat auditorium • 26 research laboratories • 16 computers per lab • Student break room • Classrooms and offices • 3 restrooms • Only campus building to use a source of renewable energy for electricity
Recommendations for the Olin Complex • Replace hallway and bathroom lighting with LCD lighting • Turn off computer from 9pm-8am • Install energy saving window blinds • Install spinning doors to prevent loss of air conditioning • Convert to efficient, low-energy vending machines
Edwin Link Building • Three story building • Offices, classrooms, laboratories, and computer labs • 54 computers • 456 lights • Four restrooms • One 24-hour dehumidifier • Air conditioning set at 72-74˚F
Recommendations for the Link Building • Keep Air Conditioning set within 75-77˚F • Replace desiccators with new, high-efficiency desiccators • Stops dehumidifier need • Replace older monitors with new monitors • Convert to ENERGY STAR vending machines • Convert to motion sensing and timed faucets
Eating Facilities on Campus The local eateries on the Florida Tech Campus 
Energy Consumption • Dining services at Florida Tech: $276,350.33 • Evans Hall and the SUB café • Every month ranges from $9,000 to $17,000 • The most amount of money is spent during September • ($17,310.56 for Evans and $15, 127.07 for the SUB) • No data for RAT nor Clemente’s Center Court • Evans dining hall spends an average of $2000 more per month when compared to the SUB • Most of the energy costs come from heating/cooling, appliances, and lighting
Appliances • Products marked with ENERGY STAR have met the strict energy efficiency guidelines set by the US EPA • Refrigerators • Use 40% less energy than the conventional models • Dishwashers • Use at least 41% less energy than the federal minimum standard for energy consumption • Lighting • ENERGY STAR qualified CFL’s use at least 2/3 less energy than standard incandescent bulbs • Generate 70% less heat
On-Campus Housing • Florida Institute of Technology requires all incoming freshman (under 24 credit hours) to live in housing located on-campus. After this initial year, students are given an option to live on campus in one of the residence halls or apartment style buildings. • Electricity consumption for FY 2007 • Total energy consumption cost for buildings on campus (Evans Hall, Southgate Apartments with Pool, All Dorms, ELS Grissom, and Crane Apartments) that include housing facilities (excluding March and April) was $734,994.59 • Air conditioning/heating • All apartments (Southgate and Columbia Village) have own climate control in residence. • All residence halls have buildings centrally climate controlled.
On-Campus Housing cont. • Efficiency • Window and door efficiency • Refrigeration, freezer, and stove efficiency • Lighting • Incentives • Energy use • Water use • Air quality • Recommendations • Student awareness of their impact on energy consumption by putting in a system that quantifies total load per apartment/room. • Incentives given to students who consume the least energy
Clemente Center • Contains • Varsity gym • Intramural gym • Racquetball court • Aerobics room • Weight training and cardiovascular fitness training area • 4 locker rooms • One laundry room • About 2 dozen offices and office-sized rooms • Food-service area • 4 large restrooms • 2 multipurpose rooms • The total square footage of the building is 58,000 ft2 • Total estimated energy usage of the building per hour is 200 kwh. • If assumed constant - annual usage is 1,747,200 kwh • At $0.10 per kwh - average annual cost ~ $175,000 • Reducing average energy consumption by 1% = $2,000 savings
Clemente Center • Lighting • Fluorescent (T-8, CFLs), Mercury lamps, High bay (PL-13) • Facility open ~100 hours per week • Lights found on in areas not in use • Recommendations • Occupancy Controls • Educate and remind Staff to turn off lights • Daylighting and automatic dimming controls • Better use of reflectors and more power increments • Better use of windows (light shelves) and interior paint • Indoor Climate Control • Controlled by on-line computer system • Temperature regulated with the use of compressors • Unnecessary heat generated in warmer months • Recommendations • Improve insulation • Improve lighting • Future • Additions should follow LEEDs new building criteria
Outdoor Lighting • Kim Lighting full cutoff luminaires • Type A: dual head on a 40 foot tall pole which contain two 400 Watt Metal Halide fixtures • Type B: single head on a 20 foot pole housing one 175 Watt Metal Halide fixture • The layout around campus outputs approximately 1ft/candlepower/ ft2 which meets city security lighting codes • These lights are continuously on throughout the night • Recommendations • Motion detection systems in designated areas could illuminate lights when needed • Photosensors (photoelectric cells) could be added • Solar lighting implemented
Florida TechRecycling Rachel Mandel Kathryn Shontz Gwen Valentine Group Leader: Colleen Lowman www.womensaid.org.uk
Areas of Focus • Water conservation, reuse, recycling • Composting • Chemicals, hazardous waste, space • Traditional recycling (aluminum, plastic, glass, paper, plastic bags)
Water Conservation • Fix Existing Problems • Leaking faucets and plumbing cause major water loss • One leak can drip up to six gallons of water a day or 2190 gallons per year • High-Efficiency, Low-Flow Options • Shower heads and sink faucets give a low-flow option which aerates the water to use less freshwater • High-efficiency washing machines and toilets can save anywhere between ten to thirty gallons, respectively, of freshwater each time they are used
Water Reuse • Rainwater Collection • Rooftop storage tanks can be easily placed all over campus buildings to collect and pump rainwater • Toilets and washing machines can use the rainwater • Polyethylene tanks are best option—lightweight, UV resistant and relatively cheap to manufacture • Greywater Treatment • Greywater is partially polluted water from all household uses excluding toilet water • Primary filtering in domestic greywater treatment systems allows water to be reused in toilets and washing machines • 61 percent of all water used in a household can be considered greywater and be recovered
Wetland Recovery Secondary treatment of water after primary filtering naturally removes all diseases and particles in the water Artificially engineered wetlands and gardens are becoming an important source of water recovery and companies are starting up to create such products around the States Melbourne Water Facilities The city reclaims water from all source at the MELBOURNE WATER PLANT, approximately 58 percent of the total incoming volume Reclaimed water is used to irrigate at an inexpensive price but is not potable FIT is offered this water at a flat rate of $150 per month for irrigation Water Recycling
Composting Did You Know That Compost Can... • Suppress plant diseases and pests. • Reduce or eliminate the need for chemical fertilizers. • Promote higher yields of agricultural crops. • Facilitate reforestation, wetlands restoration, and habitat revitalization efforts by amending contaminated, compacted, and marginal soils. • Cost-effectively remediate soils contaminated by hazardous waste. • Remove solids, oil, grease, and heavy metals from stormwater runoff. • Capture and destroy 99.6 percent of industrial volatile organic chemicals (VOC) in contaminated air. • Provide cost savings of at least 50 percent over conventional soil, water, and air pollution remediation technologies, where applicable.
Yard wastes account for nearly a fifth (over 31 million tons) of all garbage generated in the U. S. each year, making yard wastes the second largest component (by weight) of the municipal solid waste stream. Students at US colleges and universities generate on the order of 3.6 million tons of waste a year, or about 2 percent of the country's total waste stream. Food and food-related items may account for 10 to 20 percent of this waste. Composting cont’d
Florida Tech does what it needs to when it comes to hazardous wastes Safety department is trying to define the waste stream Future plan: Stop the problem at the source Chemistry and Biological Oceanography labs are recovering and reusing chemicals Current State of Chemicals 55-gallon drum used to dispose of hazardous waste http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/hazwaste.htm
Simple laboratory methods such as proper weighing and measuring of chemicals Organization and inventory of all chemicals and materials present in each individual department Continue to recycle chemicals in laboratories Obtain permits to do acid/base neutralization and metals reclamation from dilute wastewaters Ideas to Reduce Chemical Waste
Traditional Recycling • Existing Recycling Efforts • Paper collection is done by Alpha Phi Omega. • Plastic bins are set out by Habitat for Humanity. • Some Benefits of Recycling • Recycling one aluminum can requires 95% less energy than creating a new can from raw materials…enough energy to run a television for 3 hours. • The energy saved by recycling 1 plastic bottle will power a computer for 25 minutes. • Recycling one glass bottles creates 20% less air pollution and 50% less water pollution than when a new bottle is made. • Recycling a single run of the Sunday New York Times would save 75,000 trees.
Other Campus Recycling Programs Harvard University Website and hotline to guide people in recycling University of Florida Formal program began in 1989 University of Minnesota, Morris Campus Recycle cardboard, plastic, aluminum, electronics, tin, class, and paper, and even offer a paper shredding service Potential for Recycling at Florida Tech 1900 lbs of paper per month are collected 8 months out of the year. Annual potential recycling estimates 364,750 plastic bottle 47,000 glass bottles 25,250 aluminum cans Total – 437,000 items!!! Traditional Recyclingcont’d
The Plastic Bag Problem A single, central location on campus could serve as a deposit for empty plastic bags. Plastic bags could then be delivered to the local Wal-Mart for recycling. Suggestions Hand out water bottles to incoming freshman instead of laundry bags. Look into the purchasing of biodegradable items. Use recycled paper at the copy machines. Use less paper in classrooms. Instead of making copies of handouts, scan them and let students view the PDF files. Traditional Recycling cont’d • Costs • The cost for recycling is $25.00 per month for one 90 gallon bin. • A minimum of 25 bins would be necessary.
Conclusion – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle!! • There are ways to minimize the use of materials and creation of waste • Materials are being reused! • There is some recycling at Florida Tech. • The recycling of more items is a definite possibility, and support for a recycling program does exist.
Conclusions • As a first class research institution and an important force in the Melbourne community, Florida Tech should take a far more proactive stance in addressing the school’s environmental impact. • Overall, saving energy reduces cost, reduces the depletion rate of natural resources, and reduces loads at power plants, which ultimately reduces emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. • By using this opportunity to educate not only students and staff, but the surrounding communities as well, Florida Tech can have a far reaching impact as a model Green Campus.