SERVSAFE/CHAPTER 6 THE FLOW OF FOOD: PURCHASING, RECEIVING, and STORAGE
FACTS • An approved food supplier is one that has been inspected and meets all applicable local, state, and federal laws. • Make sure food suppliers have good food safety practices. • Develop a relationship with your suppliers, and get to know their food safety practices.
AGENCIES • USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture • FDA: Food and Drug Administration • GMP: Good Manufacturing Practices • GAP: Good Agricultural Practices
RECEIVING and INSPECTING • Arrange deliveries so they arrive one at a time and during off-peak hours • Deliveries should be carefully and immediately inspected and put away as quickly as possible. • If you must reject an item, set it aside from the items you are accepting.
Temperature Criteria • Receive cold TCS food at 41 degrees F. or lower, unless otherwise specified • Receive hot TCS food at 135 degrees F. or higher, unless otherwise specified • Receive frozen food frozen
Packaging of Food • Reject items with tears, holes, or punctures in their packaging. • Reject cans with swollen ends, rust, or dents. • Reject items with leaks, dampness, or water stains • Reject items with signs of pests or pest damage. • Reject items with expired code or use-by dates
Product Quality • Poor food quality can be a sign that the food has been time-temperature abused. • Reject food with an abnormal color. • Reject meat, fish, or poultry that is slimy, sticky, or dry. • Reject food with an abnormal or unpleasant odor.
SPECIFIC FOOD Inspections • EGGS • Must be clean and unbroken • Shell eggs should be received at an air temperature of 45 degrees F. or lower • Liquid, frozen, and dehydrated egg products must be pasteurized as required by law and have a USDA inspection mark
SPECIFIC FOOD Inspections • MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS • Must be received at 41 degrees F. or lower unless other specified by law. • Must be pasteurized. • Must comply with FDA grade A standards.
SPECIFIC FOOD Inspections • SHELLFISH • Can be received either shucked or live. • Raw: nonreturnable containers; must be labeled with the packer’s name, address, and certification number; • Live: must have shellstock identification tags; tags must be kept for 90 days from the date written on them • Reject shellfish if they are muddy, have broken shells, or are dead.
SPECIFIC FOOD Inspections • PRODUCE • Sliced melons, cut tomatoes, and fresh-cut leafy greens must be received at 41 degrees F. or lower. • PREPACKAGED JUICE • Must be purchased from a supplier with a HACCP plan. • Juice must be pasteurized.
SPECIFIC FOOD Inspections • FISH SERVED RAW OR PARTIALLY COOKED • Must be frozen by the supplier for a specific time to kill parasites • Must keep records of the frozen times and temps. (provided by the supplier) for 90 days from the date you served the fish
INSPECTION STAMPS • Meat andPoultry-must have a USDA or state department of agriculture’s inspection stamp. NOTE: The stamp indicates that the product and the processing plant have met certain standards • Egg Products-must have inspection stamp indicating that federal regulations have been enforced to maintain quality and reduce contamination
STORAGE GUIDELINES • Rotate food in storage to use the oldest inventory first. • Label all TCS, ready-to-eat food prepped in-house that you have held for longer than 24 hours. • Throw away food that has passed its expiration date. • Store refrigerated raw meat, poultry, and seafood separately from ready-to-eat food. • If necessary, store ready-to-eat food above raw seafood, meat, and poultry.
How to “Stack” food in a refrigerator… • Ready-to-eat food (TOP) • Seafood • Whole cuts of beef and pork • Ground meat and ground fish • Whole and ground poultry (BOTTOM)
REFRIGERATED AND FROZEN STORAGE • Schedule regular maintenance • Defrost freezers • Set the temperatures of coolers to keep the internal temp. of TCS food at 41 degrees F. • Check cooler temps. at least once during each shift • Do not overload coolers or freezers. • Use open shelving (DO NOT line shelves with aluminum foil, sheet pans, or paper…this restricts circulation of cold air in the unit)
DRY STORAGE • The temperature of dry-storage area should be between 50 and 70 degrees F. • Store dry food away from walls and at least six inches off the floor. • Make sure dry-storage areas are well ventilated…try to keep temperature and humidity constant throughout the area.
Chapter Review • A care of beef roast that carries both a USDA inspection stamp and a USDA choice grade stamp indicates that the meat and processing plant have met USDA standards and the meat quality is acceptable. • Scheduling all deliveries at the same time is NOT a general purchasing and receiving principle. • Receiving is an important step in the flow of food in a food service establishment because food is examined for the first time.
Review Cont. • If poultry passed inspection by the USDA and was received and stored properly, it is safe to eat as long as it is cooked to 165 degrees F. for 15 seconds. • A torn label does NOT indicate that canned products are unsafe. • A fresh shipment of pork delivered to a hospital will be pink lean meat with white fat. • When choosing a food supplier, it is MOST important that it meets food safety standards.
Review Cont. • Fresh eggs should be received at a temperature of 45 degrees F. (72 degrees C.). • Sous Vide packed food that is leaking should be rejected. • The term “first in first out” means food supplies should be used in order in which they were received. • To hold food at a specific internal temperature, the air in the refrigerator must be kept approximately 2 degrees F. (1 degree C.) or lower.
Review Cont. • Potentially hazardous, ready-to-eat food can be stored in the refrigerator 7 days before it should be discarded. • Floor cleaner should NOT be stored in a dry-storage area. • Uncovered fresh fish on the bottom shelf is stored in the refrigerator improperly. • Storing raw poultry on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator is an incorrect storage practice.
Review Cont. • Dry goods should be stored at a temperature between 50 degrees F. to 70 degrees F. (10 degrees C. to 21 degrees C.). • 60 degrees F. (16 degrees C.) is an unsafe internal temperature to store ground pork. • To prevent pests, food supplies should be stored six inches off the floor and away from the wall. • The temperatures of commercial refrigerators and freezers in a kitchen should be checked daily.
Review Cont. • Cooked chicken breats over fresh poultry is stored correctly in the refrigerator. • Storing cleaning chemicals above food in dry storage areas can lead to the contamination of food.