DEFINITION Paralanguage is the voice intonation that accompanies speech, including voice pitch, voice tone and the rhythm of speech. Paralanguage can alter meaning.When the voice tone rises at the end of a sentence in English, it means the sentence is a question. Paralanguage can give emotional context for the content of speech.A loud, high pitched, voice tone can express excitement, anger or fear. Paralanguage can show membership in a linguistic subgroup. Accents are partially caused by paralanguage. The cadence or rhythm of a southern accent in the U.S. is slow and lazy sounding. What Is Paralanguage?
DEFINITION Kinesics refers to the use of facial expression and body language to communicate. Some experts estimate that up to 80% of what is communicated comes from kinesics. Facial expressions and body language can contradict spoken meaning. Facial expressions and body language can emphasize spoken meaning. Some kinesics seem to be universally interpreted in the same way cross-culturally. Research on facial expressions of emotion support this view. A smiling face is universally interpreted to mean friendliness. Some kinesics are culture bound and must be learned to be correctly interpreted. Holding the hand up in front of the body above the level of the head with the fingers extended and the palm facing out means in the U.S., “give me your attention.” In Greece, it is a very bad insult. What Does Kinesics Do?
DEFINITION The study of how people communicate using space and the arrangement of objects in space. Setting the tone for formal vs informal interactions. Arranging objects to communicate a flow of traffic or an ordering of activities Arranging objects to create public and private spaces Creating social vs individual activity spaces What is Proxemics?