Treating Schizophrenia in Low And Middle Income (LAMI) Countries: Challenges and opportunities Prof . Saeed Farooq, Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Medical Institute Lady Reading Hospital,Peshawar, PAKISTAN.
The prevalence of psychotic disorders in LAMI. System of care for Chronic disorders Staging in Schizophrenia
Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) in LAMI, its relationship with the income status and outcome of Schizophrenia Early Intervention for Schizophrenia
Supervised Treatment in Outpatients for Schizophrenia (STOPS): The concept and Randomised Controlled Trial Research and Clinical Guidelines Development
Objectives Critically examine the concept of ‘natural’ course of Schizophrenia To introduce the concept of Clinical staging in Schizophrenia
Objectives Discuss the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP), its correlates and consequences in context of Low and Middle Income Countries To identify the opportunities for research and clinical practice development .
The challenge at Health systems level Continuity of care and maintaining long term medication.
Challenge at individual level Compliance/adherence with treatment
Present level of untreated, partially treated cases • Unknown but must be close to 90%
Adherence with Treatment in Schizophrenia About 59% of patients may fail to adhere to their treatment. CATIE Trial :1493 patients with follow up for 18 months 74 percent of patients discontinued the medication before 18 months of the study period.
Adherence with Treatment in Schizophrenia With the exception of Olanzapine ( discontinued by 64 percent ) atypical antipsychotic did not fare better than the typical antipsychotic ( 82 percent for quetiapine, 74 percent in risperidone, and 79 percent of those assigned to ziprasidone could not continue the drug for trial period versus 75 percent of those assigned to Perphenazine)
Non adherence to drugs in schizophrenia • Lack of insight • Cultural belief • Affects mostly poor people who can not afford treatment • Chronic condition & needs continuity of care • Schizophrenia has stigma associated with it and relatives and patients are reluctant to have treatment or seek help for this disorder. .
What is the most important determinant of outcome in Schizophrenia
Poor outcome for untreated schizophrenia • Co-morbid substance abuse • Suicide • Increased treatment resistance • Impairment in cognitive and neuropsychological functions • Offending behavior • Vocational failure • Overall poor outcome. Each relapse in schizophrenia results in additional costs and miseries for the patient
Clinical staging for Schizophrenia?? (McGorry et al; World Psychiatry 2008;7:148-156) Stage 1: Ultra-high risk: Pre psychosis stage. Stage 2: Early detection and treatment of first episode psychosis.
Clinical staging for Schizophrenia?? (McGorry et al; World Psychiatry 2008;7:148-156) Stage 3: The critical period of the first 5 years after diagnosis:
Clinical staging for Schizophrenia?? (McGorry et al; World Psychiatry 2008;7:148-156) period of maximum risk for disengagement, relapse and suicide, as well as coinciding with the major developmental challenges of forming a stable identity, peer network, vocational training and intimate relationships. Treatment goals in this phase are the management of effective medication and the use of effective psychosocial interventions to minimize the development of disability and maximize functioning.
Gap of 1-10 days in medication The medication status is also the strongest predictor of relapse; discontinuation of medication increases the relapse risk five folds9 . Even a gap as small as 1-10 days in medication over one year period has been found to be significantly associated with increased risk of hospitalization with an odds ratio of 1.98
The prevalence The large populations in developing countries have much high prevalence of chronic mental disorders. One state in India has amore people suffering from Schizophrenia than those living in whole of Americas2.
45% < 45. The age structure of LAMI countries In Pakistan, 45% of population is below 45 years of ag The prevalence of those with first episode psychosis will be much higher than those in the industrialized countries.
Where is the evidence for LAMI? The “natural course” of Schizophrenia in developing countries
“Natural’’ course of schizophrenia “Our original expectancy was that the natural courseof schizophrenia would be favourable in a rural area of China.In every instance, however, the results also supported theconclusion that the natural course of schizophrenia, especiallyclinical outcome, was poor - even in a Chinese rural area”.
Present level of “ Natural” course • “One disappointment is that the proportion of patients receivingno treatment at all has increased (30.6% in this study), ratherthan decreased (20.3% in 1982)” , M. S., Xiang, M. Z., Huang, M. S., et al (2001) Natural course of schizophrenia: two-year follow-up study in a rural Chinese community. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 154 -158.
“ Natural” course Unknown but must be close to 90% of untreated and partially treated.
The relationship between the duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in low-and-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta analysisSaeed Farooq Matthew Large,OlavNielssen , WaquasWaheed. Schizophrenia Research.(109);2009. 15-23 Significant negative correlation between DUP and improvement in symptoms after treatment (r=−0.290, 95% CI=−0.483 to −0.069, z=−2.559, p<0.011) . The value remained unchanged using both random effect model and fixed effect model.
The relationship between the duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in low-and-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta analysis Prolonged DUP was also associated with increased levels of disability. Longer DUP associated with a higher mortality ?
Cohen et al. Questioning an Axiom: Better Prognosis for Schizophrenia in the Developing World? Schizophrenia Bulletin ,2008. 34, 229–244.
Relationship between Gross Domestic Productand Duration of Untreated Psychosis in low andmiddle-income countriesMatthew Large, Saeed Farooq, Olav Nielssen and Tim Slade The British Journal of Psychiatry (2008)193, 272–278. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.041863 The average mean DUP in studies from LAMI countries was 125.0 weeks compared with 63.4 weeks in studies from high income countries (P=0.012). Within the studies from LAMI countries, mean DUP fell by 6 weeks for every $1000 of GDP purchasing power parity.
Relationship between gross domestic product and duration of untreated psychosis in low and middle-income countries There appears to be an inverse relationship between income and DUP in LAMI countries. The cost of treatment is an impediment to care and subsidised antipsychotic medication would improve the access to treatment and the outcome of psychotic illness in LAMI countries.
The Challenge for Mental Health Professionals • Change the Culture of Care in Chronic mental illness, • Strive for the “Unnatural “ course of illness
Conclusion Natural Course of Schizophrenia in LAMI is not benign DUP is related with poor outcome and income Clinical staging in schizophrenia may be possible We must aim to change the ‘natural’ course.
DOTS IS COST EFFECTIVE • The World Bank considers DOTS to be one of the most cost effective health interventions. DOTS is more cost effective than self-administered treatment.
What DOTS can offer for chronic conditions like schizophrenia • Regular Follow up • Regular free supply of drugs • Continuity of care • Education for the relatives • Reduced Stigma?
RATIONALE • Patients suffering from Schizophrenia need supervision and it is possible.
RATIONALE: We owe it to the family • Our family has largely ‘subsidized’ the treatment of schizophrenia for the society and the state at large by providing the social, psychological, residential and occupational support which constitute the major proportion of the cost of treatment
OR PERHAPS!! STOPS (Supervised Treatment in Out Patients for Schizophrenia, Short course ) ? • Short course: At least two years
How STOPS work? • Referral • Evaluation • Schizophrenic from district Peshawar • consent for a relative to supervise his/her treatment • Key Care Supervisor (KCS) who agrees to supervise the treatment of the patient
Essential components of DOTS • A regular uninterrupted provision of FREE DRUGS TO THE ACTIVE CASES • Standardized treatment regimen of six to eight months of • DRUG THERAPY UNDER SUPERVISION
How STOPS works?...... cont • Provision of drugs free of cost for one month • Involving family in overall management plan • Family education regarding • Nature of disorder and its likely outcome. • Supervision of treatment (monitoring the drug compliance by observing and recording the correct medication) • Early relapse signsand its management by the family
How DOTSS work?.......cont • The patients collect supply of the drugs every month and relatives have to satisfy the staff that patient is taking drugs regularly. • If patient is unable to come and misses an appointment, we will contact him her at home and persuade to continue the treatment. • If patient has a relapse despite being on treatment, he will either be admitted in psychiatry unit or will be seen more frequently
Review After One Month • Assess psychopathology • Rate for improvement/ worsening G.A.F. • Check for compliance ( check tablets/relatives report Stable Not stable • Relapse • No improvement • Worsening of symptoms • Doubtful compliance • Review by the consultant psychiatrist Continue the drug according to the phase of treatment Continue the drug according to the phase of treatment Stable &discharge Admit Continue out-patient assessment weekly till patient is stable
Patient presents with psychotic features Assessment by consultant psychiatrist Diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo effective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria (Appendix –A) Meets the criteria for inclusion in programme. (Appendix – B), included in STOPS. Assessment for severity of disease, compliance and G.A.F (see Appendix-C) Consent obtained for supervision (Appendix-D) Key Care Giver identified KCG trained in drug monitoring and supervision ( Appendix – E) Provide one month of supply of drugs.
The Pilot Project • Started in Sept 2004 • Patients enrolled=92 • Male 70 • Female 22 • No follow up after 1st assessment 13 • Mean age 34.84 SD=10.58