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Developing Individual Change Plans

Developing Individual Change Plans

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Developing Individual Change Plans

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  1. Developing Individual Change Plans ACED 4710/7900 Classroom Management Chapter 10

  2. Topics • Introduction • Behavior Management in Perspective • Conducting An Environmental Analysis/Functional Assessment • Strategies for Helping Students Develop New Behavioral Skills • A Team Approach to Developing a Positive Behavior Change Plan • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Teachers are increasingly asked to successfully incorporate into their regular education classrooms students who have difficulty behaving in ways that facilitate their own learning and the learning of others. • During the 1990s, there occurred a shift away from a simple focus on rewards and punishments towards an approach termed cognitive behaviorism in which educators emphasized helping students better understand their behavior and take greater responsibility for changing their behavior. • Self monitoring • Self instruction • Social skill training

  4. Behavior Management in Perspective • Basic assumptions • Behaviorism is a scientific approach to changing behavior. • Behavior is influenced by the consequences following the behavior. • Behavior change programs must focus on specific, observable behavior. • Data collection is necessary in order to alter behavior thoughtfully and systematically.

  5. Advantages to Behavior Management Some students need special assistance in controlling their behavior. Reinforcers and response cost can assist students in developing more productive behaviors. Behavioristic intervention may have a positive effect on other students in the classroom, whereas reprimands often create a negative ripple effect. Disadvantages to Behavior management Causes the teacher to focus on students’ behavior rather than on his/her teaching methods. When too much external control (rewards) is used, it may have a negative effect on students’ ability to become competent and positive individuals. Behavior Management in Perspective (continued)

  6. Conducting an Environmental Analysis/Functional Assessment • A Functional Assessment Involves 4 Components • A functional assessment • A positive behavior change plan • The implementation of this plan • The ongoing monitoring and adjustment of this plan

  7. Conducting an Environmental Analysis/Functional Assessment (Continued) • A Functional Behavioral Assessment Answers the Following Questions: • What are the antecedents and the consequences that cause the behavior to exist? • What function(s) does the behavior serve for the student? • What environmental changes can be made to change the student’s behavior? • What behaviors can we teach the student to help him act more responsibly and meet his needs without using behaviors that violate the rights of others?

  8. Conducting an Environmental Analysis/Functional Assessment (Continued) • How is it conducted: • Can be completed by indirect methods, such as interviewing parents, counselors, administrators, and instructional assistants. • Can be completed by direct methods, such as actual classroom observation by a peer teacher, an administrator, and the misbehaving student. • Should be implemented by teams. • Should be viewed as a proactive strategy rather than a reactive. • See page 365 of our text for an example of an observation form.

  9. Self-Management Help students count and record their own behavior. Teach students new social skills for meeting their needs. Develop an agreement or contract to help motivate students to use those new skills. Self-Monitoring Assist students in establishing a system for recording their own behavior. This creates an internalized locus of control. This approach carries over to other situations and other behaviors. Strategiesfor Helping Students Develop New Behavioral Skills

  10. A Team Approach to Developing a Positive Behavior Change Plan • An effective team should be comprised of two classroom teachers who work with the student, a counselor, an administrator, a parent, and the student. • The team should focus on no more than two behaviors. • The team should develop no more than three interventions for each behavior. • See page 402 in our text for an example of a change plan.

  11. Contracts are sometimes used to alter students’ behavior. These contracts… • May be for individuals or groups. • Should have “buy-in” from all affected parties for maximum effect. • Should specifically address expected behaviors and rewards/consequences. • Work best when geared toward rewards (positive reinforcement) rather than punishment. • Are explained beginning on page 389 in your text.

  12. Teachers can dramatically influence student behavior. We increasingly are asked to document both student behavior problems and the interventions used to alter the misbehavior. The ability to help these students is professionally rewarding. Conclusion See Activity 4.2 for an assignment related to this topic.