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introduction to storage tank

introduction to storage tank

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introduction to storage tank

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  1. به نام خدا introduction to storage tank MD DEPARTMENT Heidary.roohollah@hedcoint.com

  2. Table of content • Introduction • Applicable code • Parts of AST • Types of AST • Construction • Typical damages of AST • Cryogenic storage tank

  3. Introduction • Storage tanks are a familiar part of our industrial landscape. They are used to store a multitude of different products and come in a range of sizes, from small to truly gigantic. • The ability to store large quantities of liquid and gaseous products was an essential element in the development of a number of industries. • More recently the liquid natural gas (LNG) trade, accounting for the bringing to markets of some 20% of the world’s natural gas, would not be possible without the development of large scale cryogenic storage units at both export and import terminals.

  4. Applicable code

  5. PARTS OF TANK • Bottom • Shell • Roof • Annular plate • Wind girder • Stairway • Flash type-clean out fitting • Rafter • Girder • Water spray sys.

  6. PARTS OF TANK (annular plate)

  7. PARTS OF TANK (St.ring, Stairway, Flash type…

  8. PARTS OF TANK (water spray sys.)

  9. PARTS OF TANK (rafter , girder)

  10. Types of above ground steel storage tank • Foundation construction • Shape of the bottom • Type of the foundation construction • Double bottom • Material • Detection • Fixed roof • shape • Supporting • Floating roof • position • construction

  11. Types of steel tank (foundation) • Foundation construction • Shape of the bottom cone up cone down flat with slope flat without slop

  12. Types of steel tank (foundation) • Foundation construction • Type of the foundation construction • earth foundations without a ringwall • reinforced concrete ring wall foundation • reinforced concrete slab

  13. Types of steel tank (bottom) • Material ( steel, polymer) • Detection • passive system • continuously activated vacuum system

  14. Types of steel tank (fixed roof) • Self-supporting roof • cone roof - they are economical when the volumes are up to 2 000 m3 • dome roof - they are economical when the volumes are bigger than 2 000 m3. Steel dome roof could be applied when the volumes are up to 70 000  m3 ( diameter D < 65 m ). • Supported roof • cone roof – they can be applied in all existing volumes of the tanks; • hanging roof - they are  still experimental.

  15. Types of steel tank (fixed roof)

  16. Types of steel tank (floating roof) They are applied when store volatile products and/or the tanks themselves have big volumes • According to their position:- external floating roof- internal floating roof • According to their construction:- single deck floating roof;- double deck floating roof.

  17. Types of steel tank (floating roof)

  18. Types of steel tank (floating roof)

  19. FRANGIBLE roof A Frangible roof is a roof to shell joint or junction that is weaker than the rest of the tank and will preferentially fail if the tank is over pressurized.

  20. Shell CONSTRUCTION • rolls method • sheet by sheet (classical) method • lifting method • Tank Jacking

  21. Roof CONSTRUCTION

  22. Cathodic protection

  23. TYPICAL DAMAGES OF ABOVEGROUND STEEL TANKS Settlement of the tank

  24. TYPICAL DAMAGES OF ABOVEGROUND STEEL TANKS elephant’s foot buckling

  25. TYPICAL DAMAGES OF ABOVEGROUND STEEL TANKS floating roof damage

  26. TYPICAL DAMAGES OF ABOVEGROUND STEEL TANKS Collapse under vacuum

  27. GRYOGENIC STORAGE TANK • TYPES OF STORAGE • PRESSURIZED STORAGE • SEMI-REFRIGERATED STORAGE • ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE STORAGE

  28. LIQUFIED GASES BUTANE -0.5 BUTADIENE -4.5 AMMONIA -33 PROPANE -42 PROPYLENE -47 ETHANE -88 ETHYLENE -103 METHANE -161 LNG -162 NITROGEN -195

  29. Cryogenic tank code history

  30. special parts in a cryogenic TANK • Expansion bellow • Anchor strap • Suspended deck • Cool down nozzle • In tank pump • Insulation • Base heating system • LTD measurement

  31. PARTS OF TANK (anchor strap)

  32. PARTS OF TANK (heating system)

  33. PARTS OF TANK (suspended deck)

  34. Insulation MATERIALS

  35. insulation

  36. Expansion bellow

  37. IN TANK PUMP

  38. Types of cryogenic tank • •Containment addresses the question: • What if the tank leaks? • SINGLE CONTAINMENT • DOUBLE CONTAINMENT • FULL CONTAINMENT • MEMBRANE TANK

  39. ⑤ ⑦ ① ⑧ ② ④ ③ ⑨ 1 primary container (steel) 6 roof (steel) 2 bottom insulation 7 loose fill insulation 3 foundation 8 outer steel shell (not capable of containing liquid) 4 foundation heating system 9 bund wall 5 suspended roof (insulated) SINGLE CONTAINMENT

  40. ⑥ ⑩ ⑧ ⑨ ① ② ③ ⑤ ④ 1 primary container (steel) 6 suspended roof (insulated) 2 secondary container (steel or concrete) 7 roof (steel) 3 bottom insulation 8 loose fill insulation 4 foundation 9 outer shell (not capable of containing liquid) 5 foundation heating system 10 cover (rain shield) DOUBLE CONTAINMENT

  41. FULL CONTAINMENT 1 primary container (steel) 5 suspended roof (insulated) 2 secondary container (steel) 6 roof (steel) 2 bottom insulation 7 loose fill insulation 3 foundation 8 concrete roof 4 foundation heating system 9 pre-stressed concrete outer tank (secondary container)

  42. MEMBRANE TANK

  43. Cavern storage

  44. Foundation type

  45. Ammonia tank • What makes ammonia storage special? • Flammability • Toxicity • Latent heat • Electrical conductivity • Stress corrosion cracking • The truly lethal nature of the gas means that special measures are required for the design, • construction and especially the operation of storage facilities.

  46. Concrete storage tank Prestressed concrete has become the most commonly used Material for the outer containers of full containment low temperature tanks.

  47. THANK YOU