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Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning PowerPoint Presentation
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Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning

Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning

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Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning

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    1. Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning Module Fourteen

    2. Conditioning in the United States. Thorndike studied how quickly animals could learn how to solve problems Developed the Law of Effect If a response to a stimulus is rewarded then the behavior will be repeated If a response to a stimulus is followed by a neutral or negative outcome, the behavior will cease or extinguish

    3. Operant conditioning Learning that depends on stimuli that follow a response (consequence) Describes how organisms learn to operate or control their environment Different from classical conditioning in which learning is a passive process Often studied using Skinner boxes Lever (rats) or key (pigeons) Food dispenser Cumulative recorder for tracking responses over time

    4. Reinforcement Reinforcement is any consequence that produces an increase in that behavior in the future Positive reinforcement Rewarding stimulus increases responding Candy, kisses, praise Negative reinforcement Removal of negative stimulus increases responding Giving in to childs request to stop tantrum

    5. Punishment Any consequence that causes a decrease in subsequent behavior Positive punishment Presenting an aversive stimulus to decrease responding Corporal punishment (e.g., hitting); prison Negative punishment Removal of pleasant stimulus reduces responding Grounding; losing television privileges

    6. Operant conditioning processes Acquisition Initial stage of learning a new pattern of behavior http://www.discoveryplace.org/video/09_hi.htm Shaping The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Shaping rats to press a lever or more complex behaviors Toilet training as a shaping process

    7. Operant conditioning processes Extinction Behavior returns to its baseline Occurs when the behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer Could be an increase or decrease in behavior Extinction bursts Initial tendency to increase behavior when reinforcement is discontinued

    8. Schedules of reinforcement Schedule of reinforcement Determines whether a particular response is reinforced Continuous reinforcement Every response is reinforced Intermittent reinforcement Not every response is reinforced Increases resistance to extinction

    9. Interval schedules of reinforcement Reinforcement occurs after a specified time span Fixed interval schedule Reinforcers given for first response after fixed amount of time has passed Pauses after reinforcer, increases until next reinforcer Variable interval schedule Reinforcements given for first response after a variable amount of time Time interval length varies around a predetermined average Slow, steady responding

    10. Ratio schedules of reinforcement Certain number of responses are required to get reinforced Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcers given after fixed ratio of responses i.e., every 3rd bar press burst of responding, brief pause after reinforcer Variable ratio schedule Reinforcements given after a variable number of unreinforced responses Varies around a predetermined average Slots may pay out after six tries (on average) Steady high rates of responding

    11. Effects of schedules on behavior Partial reinforcement effect Partial reinforcement more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement Higher ratios create higher response rates Shorter intervals cause more frequent responding Variable schedules are more resistant to extinction and cause steadier responses than fixed schedules Ratio schedules produce faster responding than interval schedules

    12. Why a focus on reinforcers? Skinner argued that reinforcement of positive behaviors and extinction of negative behaviors was more effective Problems with punishment Punished behavior may only discontinue in presence of authority Punishment does not indicate what behavior is desirable Punishment may actually be rewarding Punishment can lead to anger, fear, frustration

    13. Stimulus Control Learning that some responses are reinforced only under certain circumstances Singing in a choir vs. singing on a bus Discriminative stimuli - Cues that indicate the probable consequences of a behavior Pigeons trained to peck only when green disk is lit but not when it is unlit

    14. Stimulus generalization Behavior increases in the presence of a new stimulus that resembles the discriminative stimulus Pigeons trained to discriminate between Monet (an Impressionist) and Picasso (a Cubist) paintings Pigeons generalize responding to other Monets and Picassos Even generalize to other similar artists

    15. Observational learning Does all learning occur through direct experience? Observational learning is the process of learning through the observation of others behavior Banduras Bobo doll experiment Child sees adult aggress on Bobo doll or sees a neutral interaction Child taken to room with toys but told that they couldnt play with them Child taken to a third room with toys, including Bobo doll Child left alone and observed

    16. Observational learning processes Attention To learn, you must pay attention to the behavior of another (a model) and the consequences of that behavior Retention You must store what you observed in memory Memorable behavior more likely to be enacted later Cognition plays a role in learning

    17. Observational learning processes Reproduction Convert stored mental image into behavior Must have the skills to reproduce Motivation Must be motivated to reproduce behavior Will be motivated if you encounter a situation in which you think the observed behavior will produce a reward People are more likely to imitate models that have been rewarded for their behavior and less likely to imitate those who have been punished Sometimes called vicarious reinforcement

    18. Acquisition vs. performance Acquisition Learning a response Performance Engaging in a response Implication One can learn a response without any overt indication that one has done so