The Progressive Era (1890-1920) The Progressive Era (1890–1920) The Roots of Progressivism/Women’s Rights to Women’s Suffrage Roosevelt and Taft The Wilson Years
The Roots of Progressivism Chapter 5 Lesson 1 – Part 1
Quick Write #1Kids at Work • During the early 20th century, many children as young as 5 or 6 were working all day every day picking fruit, packing meat, selling papers, or doing some other form of physical labor. Child labor was one of the targets of activists known a Progressives. • Think like a Progressive and create a list of the top 3 reasons why children shouldn’t be forced to work. While you’re compiling your list, consider the dangers that children face in the workplace and the opportunities they miss because of time spent at work.
Section 1 Vocab • Progressivism • Muckraker • Lincoln Steffens • Jacob Riis • Social Gospel • Settlement House • Florence Kelley • NCL • Temperance movement • Margaret Sanger • Ida B. Wells • Jane Addams • Direct primary • Initiative • Referendum • Recall • Suffrage • Carrie Chapman Catt • NAWSA • Alice Paul • 19th Amendment
Origins of Progressivism • The Progressive Movement was started to fight for a variety of political, social, and religious problems. • Response to Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan
Muckrakers Reveal the Need for Reform • Journalists called muckrakers and fiction writers brought social problems to the public’s attention.
Reforming Government • Progressives made changes to local governments and reformed election rules to give citizens more power. • Direct Primary – all party members can vote for who runs in the general election • Initiative – permits citizens to introduce laws • Legislation – a law • Referendum – citizens can vote on laws directly • Recall – a special election to remove an elected official before their time in office is up
Transparency: Analyzing Political Cartoons: Business and Government Corruption
Progressives Reform Society • As Progressives gained support, they achieved reforms for: • The poor • Children • Improved the education system • Working conditions for industrial workers • Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire • Prohibition
CHART Chart: Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed 1870-1930 Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed, 1870-1930
Problems Reforms Laws: Factory, Labor, Child Settlement houses Education Local government Public utilities Government Reforms • Industrial hazards • Corrupt governments • Women cant vote • Poor working/living conditions • Monopolies • Rich/poor gap • Race relations
Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Part 1 Warp-Up • In your inquiry journal do the assignment “Breaker Boys” pages 116-117 • Read, look at the picture and answer the question • Due by the end of the period
The Roots of Progressivism – Women’s Rights to Women’s Suffrage Chapter 5 Lesson 1 – Part 2
QW #2 – Give Women the Vote • Before the ratification of the 19th Amendment, American women were not allowed to vote. • Put yourself in the position of a lobbyist working to convince legislators that women deserve suffrage (the right to vote) • Compile a list of at least 3 reasons why women should be granted suffrage.
Progressive Women Expand Reforms • During the Progressive Movement many women took steps to gain reform for working conditions and family life. • Suffrage = Right to vote • Seneca Falls, New York, 1848 • Declaration of Sentiments • The abolitionist and women’s suffrage movement split post-Civil War • 14th, 15th Amendment
Women Fight for the Right to Vote • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony found the National Women’s Suffrage Association • Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul were two Progressive leaders who helped reenergize the national suffrage movement. • NAWSA – National American Women Suffrage Association • Supported Wilson’s re-election in 1916 • House passed it in 1918 • Failed the Senate by 2 votes • NAWSA defeated 2 antisuffrage senators in 1918 • Success when Congress approved the 19th Amendment in 1920. • ¾ of the states passed it, August 26th, 1920
Passages of Women’s Suffrage GRAPH Graph: Passages of Women’s Suffrage
Analyzing Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage Transparency: Analyzing Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage
Roosevelt and Taft Chapter 5 Lesson 2
Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Vocab • Theodore Roosevelt • Square Deal • Hepburn Act • Meat Inspection Act • Pure Food and Drug Act • John Muir • Gifford Pinchot • National Reclamation Act • New Nationalism • Progressive Party
Theodore Roosevelt – 26th President 1901-1909 • Became President with the assassination of William McKinley. • Became the youngest President to that point 42 years of age.
Only president to be Chief Justice AFTER serving as president. • What most people associated with Taft, however, was his enormous size, and the image of his 300 plus pounds of presidential flesh offended some people and amused many others. • When he became stuck in the presidential bath tub, requiring six men to pull him free, the nation's press had a field day. • His size made him the subject of countless jokes: "Taft was the most polite man in Washington. One day he gave up his seat on a streetcar to three women." • Within the capital's social circle, Taft frequently embarrassed his family and associates by falling asleep at concerts, during presidential briefing sessions, and while presiding over his cabinet. • He accepted his size and so did most of the American public in time. William Howard Taft – 27th President, 1909-1913
Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency • When TR became President in 1901, he expanded the powers of the President and shaped the modern presidency. • He fought for reform proposals that would keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of the poor. • Teddy Roosevelt domestically was a progressive • For foreign affairs he believed in Social Darwinism • Nations compete and only the strongest survive
Trustbusting and Regulating Industry • During Roosevelt’s presidency, the government enacted many reforms involving labor unions, control of shipping costs, antitrusts, and the food and drug industries. • Went after JP Morgan • Supported coal workers over big business
The Government Manages the Environment • Following the advice of naturalists, Roosevelt closed off land and pushed for laws that would conserve water. • US Department of Agriculture (USDA) was given the authority to make sure products were safe • Creates the U.S. Forest Service in 1905
Taft Reforms • TR picks Taft as his successor, believing he would continue many of his progressive polices • Once Taft was elected President, he changed many of Roosevelt’s policies, including relaxing control of trusts and conservation of the environment. • Taft did have some success in trustbusting and helped with child labor. • Overall though because of Taft’s policies, TR decided to seek another term in office in 1912.
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast With a partner, compare and contrast TR and Taft using this Venn diagram in your notes
The Wilson Years Chapter 5 Lesson 3
Chapter 4 Section 5 Vocab • Woodrow Wilson • New Freedom • 16th Amendment • Federal Reserve Act • FTC • Clayton Antitrust Act