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Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg PowerPoint Presentation
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Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg

Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg

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Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg

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  1. Twenty years' experience with reduced agrochemical inputs:Effect on farm economics, water quality, biodiversity and environment Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg 4200 Slagelse, Denmark Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  2. Important events for Pesticides in DK • 1981-85: Increase in use of pesticides, • 1986: First Danish pesticide action plan (50% reduction over 10 years) • Since 1993: Findings of pesticides in ground water • 1994: Introduction of prohibition list • 1996: Tax on pesticides increased from 3% to 13/27% • 1997: Status on 1. Pesticide action plan • 1997-1999: Bichel committee • 1999: Tax increase to 33% and 54% • 2000: 2nd pesticide action plan (target: TFI =2) • 2004: 3rd pesticide action plan (Target:TFI = 1.7) Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  3. The main content of the Action Plans • Reduction of the treatment frequency (from 2,6 to 1,7) • Establishment of ”buffer zones” along classified watercourses • Strict and critical approval procedure for registration • Tax on pesticides • Education and training • Voluntary plan with support from advisors and research Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  4. Definition of Treatment Frequency Index • Number of times an agricultural area in rotation can be treated with a full dose. • Calculation is based on sold amounts of pesticides • Each active ingredient has a defined ”normal dose” of active ingredients, which often is equal to the full lable dose • If you use 2 x half dose, it only counts as one. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  5. Treatment Frequency Index (TFI) of pesticides used in agriculture in the period 1981-2004. Target 1,3 by 1997 Target 2,0 by 2003 Target 1,7 by 2009 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  6. Guiding Target points in different cropsTo be reached before 2009 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  7. Kg active ingredients sold for agricultural use in the period 1981-2004. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  8. Pesticide use, kg active ingredietns pr. ha 6 5 4 3 Kg pr. ha 2 1 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2003 2002 1990 1991 1992 1993 2000 2001 Holland UK Germany France Finland Sweden Denmark Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Nachrichtenbl. 55, 2003 Nachrichten

  9. Percent direct crop loss in a 0-pesticide scenario % crop loss Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  10. Relation between TFI and income at farmers level per ha Dkk/ha = 400 euro ++scenario +-scenario TFI Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  11. Reduction potential as an average for the country (Ørum 2004) Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  12. Margin over fungicide cost for different fungicide dosages applied at GS 51-55. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  13. TFI and average dose using fungicides in winter wheat TFI or Dose Farmstat/Kleffmann/ EPA Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  14. Field inspection

  15. 26 EUR 32 EUR Recommendation page

  16. Principles for changes in one dose response curves Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  17. Money given to increase dissemination activities carried out by the advisory service • Focus on getting information from research to farmers • Improving existing prognoses and warning systems on a national and regional basis • Establishing demonstrations farms • Calculate TFI at farm level (Target points) • Establishing of farmer’s field groups with focus on low pesticide input Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  18. 2,5 TFI Taget 2,0 1,5 Treatment frequency index (TFI) 1,0 0,5 0,0 n=828 n=813 n=811 n=797 n=794 n=796 n=787 n=786 n=785 n=786 101- 138 Ha <18 18-28 28-38 38-48 48-58 58-69 69-82 82-101 >138 TFI and farmsize Danish Advisory Service

  19. Re-evaluation of pesticides. • The re-evaluation had as a consequence that more than 40% of all pesticides were withdrawn between 1986-97. • Atrazin, cyanazin, trifluralin, hexazinon, dichlorbenil, MCPA, mechlorprop, diclorprop, 2,4,D, propachlor, isoprotoron • vinclozolin, iprodion, captan, fenarimol, thiabendazole, thiaphanat-methyl, thiram, guazatine, ziram, dazomet, propineb, fenpropimorph • paraquat, • dichlorvos, deltamethrin, diazinon, lindane, chlorfenvinphos, esfenvalerat Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  20. Index of load for acute oral mammalian and bird toxicity from 1981-85 to 1996. Toxic load Henning Clausen. EPA Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  21. Index of load for acute oral mammalian, bird and fish toxicity from 1981-85 to 1996. Toxic load Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Henning Clausen. EPA

  22. Flora changes in the light of low dose strategies • Survey of field flora in: 1967-1970 1987-1989 2001-2004 • Several common weed species have become more common in major crops during the last 15 years. Chr. Andreasen 2005

  23. Changes in weed population in winter wheat -1970 to 1989 Frequency Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Chr. Andreasen 2005

  24. Changes in weed population in winter wheat 1970 to 2004 Frequency Chr. Andreasen 2005 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  25. 3 years trials on 5 farms – plots of 6 ha.(wheat, barley sugar beet) Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Esbjerg et al 2003

  26. Species, which were positively influenced by low dose strategies Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  27. % findings of pesticides in smaller wells above 0.1 μg/l 800-2000 analysed samples Source: GEUS Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  28. Conclusion on water pollution. • Smaller wells and ground water : • Approved products: 2-6% with >0.1μg/l • Prohibited products: 12% with >0.1 μg/l • Most finding are done in 1-20 m depth • From 1998-2003 the annual % of wells with concentrations exceeding MAC declined from 10 to 5%. • Major findings • BAM (from dichlobenil), atrazine and triazin- metabolites dominate. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  29. Conclusion I • Difficult to measure impact of actions plans on nature and biodiversity. • Indications that 20 years policy give more “nature”. • Very toxic products have been prohibited. • Prohibition of mobile and persistent pesticides have minimized the risk of polluting our ground water. • Difficult to create a “real” environmental index for pesticides. TFI still the “best” Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

  30. Conclusion II • Action plans have had impact on farmers perception on the use of pesticides. More environmental awareness. • Cheap for the farmers to ensure their crop with pesticides beyond an economical optimal • Difficult to reach TFI= 1.7; • Reductions beyond TFI=1.7 requires considerable changes of common crop practise. • Need constant support from research and advisors in order to give the farmer the necessary support. • Danish Farmers want mutual rules for farmers in EU. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences