Advanced IP Routing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

advanced ip routing n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Advanced IP Routing PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Advanced IP Routing

play fullscreen
1 / 37
Download Presentation
Advanced IP Routing
131 Views
stacie
Download Presentation

Advanced IP Routing

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Advanced IP Routing • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol Reference D. E. Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP, ISBN 1-13-018380-6, 4th Ed., Vol. 1, Ch. 15. Network Architecture and Design

  2. OSPF • OSPF is the Open Shortest Path First protocol. • That means it is an “Open” version of the “Shortest Path First” algorithm, it does not mean it tries to open the shortest path first. Network Architecture and Design

  3. OSPF • OSPF version 2 is defined in RFC 2328. • (Version 1 is no longer in use.) Network Architecture and Design

  4. OSPF • OSPF is an update-based, link-state, open routing protocol. • These attributes make OSPF the most commonly used IGP in use today. Network Architecture and Design

  5. OSPF • OSPF sends its entire routing table upon startup, then sends a keep alive every 10 seconds. If a topology change occurs, only the changes are sent. • This is much less bandwidth intensive and much faster than RIP. Network Architecture and Design

  6. OSPF - Link State Protocol • OSPF is a “link state” protocol. • This means that each router keeps a database of all the links in its “area”, and calculates the “shortest path” to each destination network from that database. Network Architecture and Design

  7. OSPF - Dijkstra Algorithm • In a nutshell, the Dijkstra Algorithm has each router imagine itself as the root of a tree, and calculates each successive link as a branch in the tree. Network Architecture and Design

  8. Dijkstra • See ospf.pdf • Slides 5 to 16. Network Architecture and Design

  9. OSPF - Flooding • In each area, every time a link changes state, every router is “flooded” with Link State Advertisements (LSAs) describing the change. • Every router must run the Dijkstra algorithm to re-calculate every route in the area. Network Architecture and Design

  10. When a Link Changes State Network Architecture and Design

  11. OSPF - LSAs • Different types of LSAs. Examples • Router link (LSA type 1) • Network link (LSA type 2) • Network summary (LSA type 3) • External (LSA type 5) • ….. Network Architecture and Design

  12. Location of Different LSAs Network Architecture and Design

  13. OSPF - Link Cost • Each link is assigned a cost. By default this cost is 100,000,000 / (speed of link in bps). So, the default cost for a FDDI link is 1, 10BaseT is 10, and a T1 is 64. • Unfortunately, this does not scale well with today’s technology. Network Architecture and Design

  14. OSPF - Link Cost • Fortunately, the cost of a link can be set manually. In cisco, this is done under each interface: interface serial 0 ip ospf cost 10 Network Architecture and Design

  15. OSPF – Link Cost • A “total” cost is then calculated for each destination prefix. Each prefix is installed into the routing table with a next hop relating to the lowest cost path. Network Architecture and Design

  16. OSPF - Convergence • When a link changes state, the LSA flood and recalculation happen in a very short time, usually seconds. • Because a link change is explicitly stated, there are very few routing loops (and for very short periods) in OSPF. Network Architecture and Design

  17. OSPF - Convergence • This may seem CPU and memory intensive, and it does take a great deal more memory and CPU than RIP, but it also allows OSPF to converge routes in seconds even over large and complex networks. Network Architecture and Design

  18. OSPF - Areas • To help conserve CPU and RAM, and to limit LSA floods, areas were introduced. • Each router need only know about the links in its area, and the link back to Area 0 (zero). Network Architecture and Design

  19. OSPF - Areas • Areas are defined as a 32-bit number, either straight decimal (e.g. 123456) or as a “dotted decimal” (e.g. 10.0.0.1). Network Architecture and Design

  20. OSPF - Area 0 Every area must be directly connected to “Area 0”. Area 0 Area 1 Area 3 Area 2 Network Architecture and Design

  21. OSPF - Area 0 • The routers in Area 0 contain the aggregated prefixes for every area. • Area 0 is sometimes called the “Backbone” area because all inter-area traffic must traverse Area 0. Network Architecture and Design

  22. OSPF - Area 0 • Area 0 places an extreme burden on a network designer using OSPF. • Many networks “grow” in non-elegant ways, making a truly hierarchical network difficult or even impossible. Network Architecture and Design

  23. OSPF - ABRs • Routers with an interface in Area 0 and an interface in a non-zero area are called “Area Border Routers” or ABRs. • ABRs aggregate the prefixes for a non-zero area and inject the aggregated prefixes into Area 0. Network Architecture and Design

  24. Different Types of Routers Network Architecture and Design

  25. Location of Different Routers Network Architecture and Design

  26. OSPF - Neighbors • OSPF uses neighbor relationships to send routing updates. • If a neighbor relationship cannot be achieved, no routing updates will pass. Network Architecture and Design

  27. Routing Protocol Packets Network Architecture and Design

  28. OSPF - DR • On broadcast media (e.g. Ethernet), OSPF elects a Designated Router (DR) and a Backup Designated Router (BDR). Network Architecture and Design

  29. OSPF - DR • When updates are sent, each router on the LAN sends the updates to the DR (and the BDR), which sends one copy to each router. • This is much better than each router sending a copy of each update to each other router. Network Architecture and Design

  30. OSPF - BDR • If the DR is disabled or otherwise does not respond to queries, the BDR takes over. Network Architecture and Design

  31. DR and BDR • Hellos elect DR and BDR to represent segment • Each router then forms adjacency with DR and BDR Network Architecture and Design

  32. OSPF - Virtual Links • A tunnel, or “virtual link”, can be used when direct physical connectivity cannot be achieved. • This is not the preferred method. Network Architecture and Design

  33. OSPF - Multicast • OSPF uses multicast (224.0.0.x) to propagate its routing updates, not broadcast. This reduces the CPU requirement on other hosts on the LAN as they do not have to process the multicast packet if they are not part of the multicast group. Network Architecture and Design

  34. Third Intermediate Report • OSPF • I. Stergiou • BGP • A. Sgora • Deadline: 25/02/03 Network Architecture and Design

  35. Third Intermediate Report • Structure • Overview of examined technology • Focus on open research points • Related to open points works - State of the art behind open points • Your own interests - Ideas • Conclusions • References Network Architecture and Design

  36. Third Intermediate Report • Report (soft and hard copy) • Use of Greek language • A related presentation (about thirty minutes). Network Architecture and Design

  37. End of Sixth Lecture Network Architecture and Design