Polymer EnhancedSoil Stabilization Applied Polymer Systems, Inc. www.siltstop.com
Course Overview • Note: Floc Logs and Pond Logs referred to in this course are also known as polymer blocks in the industry. Silt Stop Powder is also know as polyacrylamide powder or emulsion. • Common definitions used in the erosion, sediment control, and water clarification industry • Quick Review of the Fundamentals of Polymer Enhancement • Silt Stop Powder Facts • Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization • Polymer Enhanced Sediment Control • Toxicity Testing • Sample Analysis • Rules for Polymer Use
Definitions • Anionic Polymer: A negatively charged polymer. • Acute Hypoxia: Occurs when cationic polymers attach to the negatively charged gill plates of aquatic organisms causing them to suffocate. • Best Management Practice (BMP): “A measure that is implemented to protect water quality and reduce the potential for pollution associated with storm water runoff.”1 • Cationic Polymer: A positively charged polymer. • LC50: “The toxicant concentration that is lethal to 50 percent of exposed organisms at a specific time of observation.” 2
Definitions • NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units): “The standard unit of measurement for turbidity in water analysis.”3 • Turbidity: “A measure of the amount of material suspended in the water. Increasing the turbidity of the water decreases the amount of light that penetrates the water column. High levels of turbidity are harmful to aquatic life.”4 NTU measures all particulate, including particles less than 0.45 microns . • Polyacrylamide (PAM):A water soluble polymer used in water clarification and erosion, sediment, and dust control. • Polymer: “A macromolecule formed by the chemical union of five or more identical combining units called monomers.“5 • TSS (Total Suspended Solids): is a measurement of sediment particles 0.45 microns and larger.
Acronyms United States Department of Agriculture United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service NWISRL Kimberly, ID Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory
Quick Review of the Fundamentals of Polymer Enhancement:Why We Need PAMHow is Sediment HarmfulHow Polymer Enhancement Works
Why We Need PAMHow is Sediment Harmful? 0.3 NTU 991 NTU • To get some perspective, drinking water is less than 1 NTU. • Without Federal guidelines, 1,000 NTU water could be discharged into lakes and streams, destroying aquatic ecosystems • At 1,000 NTU, we see reduced growth, reduced feeding rates, delayed hatching rates, and, even, death. Image from City of Calgary Drainage & Dewatering FAQ’s
How is Sediment Harmful? This study shows why the EPA effluent guidelines and rules and regulations for discharge limits are so important. Even in low turbidity conditions (10 – 100 NTUs), aquatic organisms start to show signs of stress. Image from Lake Superior Duluth Streams.org Water Quality: TSS & Turbidity site
How Polymer Enhancement Works This is a schematic depiction of the interactions of anionic PAM with charged soil particles in the presence of calcium. 6 The negatively charged anionic polymer attaches to the negatively charged soil particle by bridging with something having a 2+ charge, such as Calcium, in the soil.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring The polymer + jute + sediment all bind together. Soil specific polymer (must be tested before application) Soil Coconut or jute matting (provides a fibrous surface for attachment)
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring As the polymer reacts, it begins binding the sediment into larger, agglomerated particles that adhere to the matting, mulch, or straw.
Sample Analysis • A sample analysis needs to be done before any application of polymers in order to determine the best product for that site. • Polymers are site specific and not “one size fits all”. A sample analysis from Applied Polymer Systems
Silt Stop Powder: Just the Facts Silt Stop Powder: can be applied, dry, over bare soil. reacts with the metals and clays within the soil to bind them together. can be applied by hand or with a seed/ fertilizer spreader. can be added into a hydroseeding mix and applied over exposed soil and slopes. can be applied at the same time as seed and fertilizer. reacts with the soil, binding the mulch, seed, fertilizer, and other additives to the soil, holding it together until vegetation is established.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization: Soft Armoring Hydroseeding Dust Control
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring • This is the application of polymer powder to a soft pliable matting such as jute, coir, coconut, hemp or burlap which is placed onto the soil surface. • Applications are for soil stabilization such as bare soil, steep slopes, and areas of high velocity flow.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring • Silt Stop polymer powder reacts with the metals and clays within the soil to bind them together. • This complex attaches to the matting, creating a highly erosion-resistant surface that will support vegetation along with aiding in the attachment of fine particulate to the matting surface. • The same slope about four weeks later.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring A matrix is formed when the polymer binds with the soil.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring Once the polymer-soil matrix is formed, the soil is more resistant to erosion. Close up view of polymer treated soil
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring • Mattings such as jute or coconut work very well because they are pliable (great for soft armoring) and have fibrous hairs where the polymer charged particles get trapped, like flypaper. • With an open weave matting, it doesn’t matter if the polymer is applied under or over the matting. • The important thing is that the polymer touches both the soil and the matting to bind it together. • Open weave soft matting works best.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring • This microscopic view shows why something like jute, with its high surface area of fibers, provides excellent performance when applied with polymer. • Matting or fabric with a high surface area of fibers will result in best performance. Something like plastic would be ineffective because there is nowhere for the polymer charged particles to attach.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring • Notice how the polymer + matting + sediment binds together on the jute. • The polymer must have contact with both the matting and the soil for binding to take place.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring and Grassing • Polymer applied by itself may last 10 - 20 severe rain events, but when applied with matting, everything gets bound together, forming an inexpensive version of a bonded fiber matrix that can last months. • Adding vegetation can turn a temporary application into a permanent application. 1. The unprepared site 2. Rills and gullies are filled 3. Slope is soft armored and seeded 4. Vegetation is successfully established
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationCase Study:Soft Armoring and Grassing First, the ground is raked or graded to even it out.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationCase Study:Soft Armoring and Grassing • Then, jute is laid and the soil-specific polymer is applied to the jute to provide a surface area on which the polymer charged particles can attach. • This stabilizes the soil to prevent erosion and facilitates root establishment.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationSoft Armoring and Grassing • This site was soft armored with jute matting and vegetation was established. • Both the polymer and jute are biodegradable so there is no need to remove the jute from the site.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Rain Simulator Plain Matting (no polymer) The University of Central Florida conducted a demonstration simulating a one inch per hour rain event to compare polymer enhanced soft armoring to plain matting. The results are clear. Polymer Enhanced Soft Armoring The Management Academy Rainfall Simulator during the Florida Department of Transportation Training class in October, 2009.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Rain Simulator • Later, the rainfall was increased to 10 inches. Since it was not producing good storm water quality at one inch per hour, the matting on the right side was removed. • The polymer enhanced soft armoring, on the left, still produced very good water clarity.
Soft Armoring InformationUsing Geotextile Matting Prepare Site Fill any rills or gullies caused by previous erosion. Ensure the matting can be applied flush to the soil surface to prevent tenting. Apply Silt Stop Powder This can be applied by hand or with a seed/ fertilizer spreader. Grass seed and fertilizer may be applied at the same time. Apply Matting If the matting is tight, apply matting last, over the polymer powder, seed, and fertilizer. With an open weave matting, the polymer can be applied under or over. Secure the matting to the soil surface with stakes or soil staples, taking care to ensure the matting is flush to the ground.
Soft Armoring Application Rates Gentle to Moderate slopes (0 to 4H:1V) • High Clay Content: 10-20 # powder • High Sand Content: 15-20 # powder Steep slopes (3H:1V to 1H:1V) • High Clay Content: 20-35 # powder • High Sand Content: 25-50 # powder
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project Highway 98 Beach and Sand Stabilization
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project In July, 2005, 14 miles of Highway 98, between Carabelle and Eastpoint, was damaged by Hurricane Dennis.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project After initial repair, erosion required an industrial BMP (Best Management Practice) that would work on beach sands.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project • A Polymer Enhanced Soft Armoring System was chosen for this remediation. • The site was graded, then covered with an organic layer of compost. All this was covered with jute matting.
Jute + Polymer Compost Sand Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project • Polymer was applied at a rate of 50 pounds polymer per acre. • The polymer enhanced jute acts as a binding media for the polymer, compost, and sand.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project Sod was placed over the polymer enhanced jute.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project • This area withstood a tropical depression and category one hurricane after initial installation. • One year after placement, there was no erosion or need for further repair.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project Where the sod failed, the polymer enhanced soft armoring application kept everything bound together so roots could take hold and vegetation could be established.
Polymer Enhanced Soil Stabilization Soft ArmoringCase Study: Highway 98 DOT Project Note that without polymer enhancement to bind the materials together, erosion can occur beneath the sod, resulting in failure.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationHydroseeding Site-specific polymer reacts with the soil, binding the mulch, seed, fertilizer, and other additives to the soil, holding it together until vegetation is established.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationHydroseeding • Anything that you would typically put in your hydroseed mix can be applied in conjunction with PAM. • Add Silt Stop emulsions as the final additive so it does not sit in the tank for long periods of time. • Polymer emulsion with hydroseed mix being applied to slopes.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationHydroseeding • Open weave matting can be applied before hydroseeding areas, especially in areas with steep slopes or sandy conditions. • This will provide additional structural support that will create a highly erosion-resistant surface to support the establishment of vegetation. • Slope vegetation about four weeks after polymer enhanced hydroseeding application.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationCase Study:Hydroseeding • This steep slope had runoff with each rain event. • Open weave matting was put in place for stabilization, followed by a hydroseeder applied powder, seed, and fertilizer.
Polymer Enhanced Soil StabilizationCase Study:Hydroseeding • The same slope a few weeks later. • Erosion, seed, and fertilizer loss is reduced. • Tackification, growth, and runoff water quality is increased.
Hydroseeding Application Information Prepare Site Fill any rills or gullies caused by previous erosion. Ensure the matting can be applied flush to the soil surface to prevent tenting. Apply Matting Secure the matting to the soil surface with stakes or soil staples, taking care to ensure the matting is flush to the ground. Preferably, use matting with ½ - 1 inch open spaces. Hydroseeding Mix Fill the hydro-seeder tank with water and add the normal mix of seed, fertilizer, fiber mulch, etc. Add Silt Stop Powder Slowly add the Silt Stop polymer as the final additive to the hydroseed mix while the agitator is running to ensure mixing. Be sure the machine has an agitator or mechanical mixing device. If there is no mixing potential, you must use emulsion, not powder. Allow 5 minutes of mixing before application. Apply Hydroseed Spray the hydroseed mixture over the top of the open-weave matting. Proper application should result in complete coverage with no visible bare soil.
Hydroseeding Application Rates Gentle to Moderate Slopes (0 to 4H:1V) • High Clay Content: • 10-20 # powder or 1.5-2.0 gallons emulsion • High Sand Content: • 15-20 # powder or 1.5-2.0 gallons emulsion Steep Slopes (3H:1V to 1H:1V) • High Clay Content: • 20-35 # powder or 1.5-2.5 gallons emulsion • High Sand Content: • 25-50 # powder or 2.0-2.5 gallons emulsion Silt Stop emulsion or powder shall be added to all hydroseeding mixes at the above application rates per 3000 gallons of water and then applied at the rate of 3000 gallons of hydroseed mix/ acre.
Polymer Enhanced Dust Control • The same polymer can be used to reduce airborne dust. • If there is no rain, the polymer breaks down under UV light in about six months.
Polymer Enhanced Dust ControlDust Control Video • This site was treated with APS 712 Silt Stop powder via a water truck two weeks before this was filmed. • The wind speed was 50 MPH.
Dust Control Application Information Add Emulsion/Powder to Water Add Silt Stop to the water slowly to prevent clumping and poor performance. It is suggested that the polymer material be added while the tank is filling and/or the agitator is running. Allow 2-3 minutes of mixing time before application. Spray Target Area Spray the target area just like a normal water application. Spray needs to contact at least 85% of the target surface area to be effective. 100% coverage is preferred.
Dust Control Application Rates ¼ - ½ gallons of emulsion or 7-10 pounds of powder / 1000 gallons water per 1/3 acre coverage. Polymeric additions to water are limited by high viscosity. Do not exceed 1 gallon emulsion / 1000 gallons water.