“DEVELOPING THE YOUTH SOCCER PLAYER” The stages for the soccer formation from 6 to 16 years of age Bruno Redolfi Technical Director Scuola Calcio A.C. PERUGIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page... 1 Page... 2 Page... 3 Page... 4 Page... 5 Page... 6 Page... 8 Page... 9 Page.. 10 Page.. 11 Page.. 12 Page.. 13 Page.. 15 Page.. 24 Page.. 34 Page.. 44 Page.. 52 Page.. 61 Page.. 62 Page.. 63 - Some thoughts ................................................................. - The first necessity ............................................................ - Technical guidelines.......................................................... - Instructor’s task …............................................................ - Didactic indications and general picture of age groups ........ - Some notions .................................................................. - Coordinative capacities ..................................................... - Conditional capacities …..................................................... - Definition of technique ...................................................... - Motor Conducts ................................................................ - The phases of understanding ............................................ - Annual percentage of activities …………............................... - I Piccoli Amici ……………………............................................ - I Pulcini ........................................................................... - Gli Esordienti .................................................................... - I Giovanissimi .................................................................. - Gli Allievi .......................................................................... - The Rule .......................................................................... - Observation card for goalkeepers ...................................... - Bibliography .....................................................................
1 SOME THOUGHTS…. • I would like to begin with these considerations: • The right to have fun and play like a child • The right to play a sport • The right to benefit in a pure environment • The right to be treated with dignity • The right to be instructed and surrounded by competent people • The right to follow practice sessions and adjust to my own rythym • The right to measure success with children that have the same probablility of success • The right to participate and adjust to competition at its own means • The right to practice the sport in its own maximun assurance • The right to have rest times • The right to fail • 12. The right to put the following rules in practice; • The points expressed above are the “RIGHTS FOR CHILDREN IN SPORT” that I would suggest could also serve as the “TO DO PAPER FOR INSTRUCTORS,MANAGERS AND PARENTS”. Within such concepts, I think that the sense of our activities can be called a true educational “mission”. The educational road, which is based on our development program, should account for such assumptions. Sport, and of course soccer is a synonym for life, free to enjoy. Keep in mind the daily bombardment that children receive from the Internet, television, and video games make it difficult to sacrifice or make commitments, which can lead to poor interest in learning. The poor sportive culture is overflowing, it is fueled by an inadequate way to teach soccer to our children. The coach’s excessive search for results, the pressure from parents on the sideline, the absurd and premature tactics, and the need to advance in various professional dimensions is far from the activities that coaches need to be concentrating on. That does not have to scare us, actually it must make us aware of the responsibility that we have in trying to alter the described tendency. Focusing on coordination, agility, balance and youthful games will give the youth sector a view on soccer that is much more appreciated. Therefore, a serious and realistic work project, formulated to increase the human and technical qualities of the children must also guarantee a dialogue and a critical spirit opened to autonomy. Above all, it must ensure enjoyment and the joy of practicing the sport. Finally, the project will promote the ability to know how to learn individually and collectively and put into action the “rights” of the children. This is the ideal medicine for a pure and efficient program aware of the objectives to be reached. The task for us as instructors is to watch, to educate, and contribute to the necessary adjustments in knowledge, so that the children are the only protagonists of our “mission”. Let’s never forget it! • BUON CALCIO A TUTTI E BUON LAVORO ! • Bruno Redolfi • Direttore Tecnico Scuola Calcio A.C. Perugia
2 THE FIRST NECESSITY • A SOCCER SCHOOL SHOULD HAVE AN EFFICIENT INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM THAT INCLUDES: • UNDERSTANDING OF PSYCO-MOTOR ABILITIES OF THE STUDENTS • UNDERSTANDING OF THE STUDENT’S CAPACITIES • TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL ASPECTS • OBJECTIVES THAT CAN BE ACHIEVED GRADUALLY • INTEGRATED MEANS AND METHODS THAT PERMIT A FLEXIBLE TRAINING SYSTEM • global –inductive – deductive – analitical • ESSENTIAL ASPECTS OF TRAINING • Adapt the base activity to cognitive and physiological capabilities of the students. • Always consider and stimulate the demands that come from the group in order to set up activities already established during planning stages. • Within the younger age groups of the soccer school propose situations that stimulate creativity and originality, motor results and/or personal technical-tactical results. Estimation of the quality may necessity corrections. • Proceed with continuous and progressive activities based on a scale that goes from the simple to complex, from the “known” to the “new”. • Guarantee a multilateral formation with motor skills base that are as wide as possible in relation to the age group to be considered. • Cosider the student the absolute protagonist of the activity.
3 TECHNICAL GUIDELINES • MAXIMIZE THE INDIVIDUAL TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT • IMPROVE THE TECHNICAL TO TEACH THE TACTICAL • IMPROVE THE INDIVIDUAL TO IMPROVE THE GROUP • TRAIN THE MOTOR CAPACITIES • TRAIN THE COORDINATIVE CAPACITIES (within the age group of 6-11 years of age) • TRAIN PHYSICAL CONDITIONING CAPACITIES (the physical characteristics, working specifically from 13-14 years of age) • FORMATION STAGES • This categorization should naturally be flexibe. Biological maturity should be taken into account when considering the players formative stages.
4 INSTRUCTOR’S TASKS • UNDERSTAND YOUTH • PERSONALITY • PHYSICAL CONSTITUTION • ATHLETIC CONDITION • COORDINATION • TECHNICAL-TACTICAL APTTITUDES • PRINCIPAL TASKS AND OBSERVATIONS • OBSERVE - STUDY – EXPERIMENT - MODIFY • FILTER THE EXPERIENCES • WORRY ABOUT THE CHILDREN THAT DON’T PLAY AND ARE NOT SUCCEEDING • ORGANIZE ACTIVITIES WITH FLEXIBLE CRITERIA • CREATE A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT • SELF CRITIQUE • CREATE EXPECTATIONS WITHOUT ILLUSIONS • REMEMBER THAT WE WERE ONCE CHILDREN • REMEMBER WHO THE PROTAGONIST IS • RESPECT AND BE RESPECTED • MOTIVATE (play-game / confrontation-competitive) • STIMULATE AND CORRECT WITH POSITIVE COMMENTS • BE CLEAR AND CONCISE WHEN GIVING INFORMATION • ALWAYS VERIFY THAT MESSAGE IS UNDERSTOOD • ERRORS TO AVOID • Not organizing the practice session • Long explanations • Waiting in lines to perform exercises • Inefficient use of time • Stop often to correct • Exercises that are too difficult for the student’s capabilities
5 GENERAL IDEAS FOR AGE GROUPS – DIDACTIC INDICATIONS • Subdivide the program into didactic units, each with specific and progressive objectives to achieve so that after each phase is complete the objectives achieved can be verified. • Contribute to the formation of the individual personality, so that defeat and failure stimulate the desire to improve. • Give everyone the possibility to achieve success by proposing adequate difficulties in training. • Guide young players until they can technically respond to various game situations. • When players remain in the soccer school program prepare them to be able to take part in the professional youth sector. • ***************** • The formation of work groups and therefore teams, should have variations based on ability, rather than age. It is proven that unhomogenous levels in ability can produce undesireable results. Therefore, every efforth should be made to form teams of similar ability to ensure a level of equal technical growth for everyone. Taking all this into consideration the soccer school will be subdivided in:
6 SOME NOTIONS • MOTOR ACTION • Motivation • Mental Solutions • and • Perception Course of Action • of Stimuli - • External and Internal • MOTOR • SOLUTION • MEMORY • Various environmental stimuli determine the objective • The course of action is secondary to the finality movement • The execution is characterized by the continued environmental adjustment between what is considered a course of action and what is being executed • The percepts are responsible for the efficiency and for the precision of the motor action process
7 SOME NOTIONS They are the essential elements of performance. They represent the understanding of functional conditions and the understanding of the execution of motor actions. They are divided into coordinative and conditional capacities. MOTOR CAPACITIES Every motor action that fulfills a technical skill in which a basic motor scheme is utilized. MOTOR ABILITIES Regulation process, organization and control of the movement. These are based on the learning and are learned if stimulated. They are determined with the assumption and with the elaboration of the information that comes from the ANALYZERS. COORDINATIVE CAPACITIES • kinetic • visual • SOUND • tactile • static-dynamic • These are involved in various ways based on the requirements and on its objectives PERCEPTS (they are involved in various measure depending on the needs of the objectives)
8 COORDINATIVE CAPACITIES • It has been written that cooordinative capacities have been talked about since the 1970’s and 1980’s. Before then, the talk was of dexterity (Hirtz). Schnabel associates the technical and coordinative factors and distinguishes three fundamental capacities: capacity of control; capacity of adapting and transformation; capacity of motor understanding. It is Blume that charactirizes seven coordinative capacities: • Orientation temporal space • (orientation in the space within time function) • Combination • (sommersault-obstacle-passing) • Differentiation • (let a ball pass between two in movement) • Balance • (static, dynamic, in the air) • Rhythm • (temporal movement of own gestures) • Reaction • (back gestures to an impulse of various nature) • Adapting and trasformation • (avoid being hit by balls kicked between teammates) • The coordinative capacities have pre-conditions performing characteristics. The sense-motor process (analyzers and nervous central system) are the foundation of the coordinative capacities. • TRAINING OF COORDINATIVE CAPACITIES • It accelerates the quality of the technical by acting on the dominant coordinative capacities of this sport. • 2. It creates the necessary premises for the understanding of the motor abilities addressed to the sportive performance. • 3. It opens a wide training repertoire for general conditioning. • 4. Maintains and improves the capacity to perfect the use of technical abilities.
9 CONDTITIONAL CAPACITIES They are biological, genetic, predetermined and they can be improved or diminished. STRENGTH Capacity to win the inertia of a body (relaxing conditions) - Pure or Maximum: maximum capacity that can voluntarily express the muscle without taking into consideration the time (tractor). Loads from 85 to 100% of my maximun – from 1 to 5 repetitions with extended time from 2 to 5 minutes per 3/5 series - Resistance: capacity of muscle to produce longer worktimes (van). Loads from 40 to 60% from 20 to 30 repetitions with extended time of 30 to 45 seconds per 3/5 repetitions - Velocity: capacity to move a mass within a short time possible (ferrari). Loads from 75% - from 6 to 10 repetitions with extended times of 4 to 6 minutes per 3/5 series VELOCITY Capacity to express strength in the regime of rapidity RAPIDITY Number of shots in the goal and numbers of guidance (the gesture, faster possible) RESISTANCE Capacity to express strength in the regime of duration (kenyota) ARTICULATE MOBILITY Capacity to create an excursion on the articulate system (reduces with the increases of the muscular mass)
10 DEFINITION OF “TECHNIQUE” • Technique satisfies the tactical objectives which vary because in a game of soccer situations are never identical. Techniques become an instrument available to the player to resolve flowing problems within the unfolding of the play. In soccer the technique is the achievement that will allow the solution of the situational-tactical objectives. • A player should know: WHAT TO DO? – HOW TO DO IT?– WHERE AND WHEN TO DO IT? – WHY DO IT? • ASSUMED FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TECHNIQUE • Social environment: the child will accomplish better results if the surrounding social environment is positively stimulating (family, friends, managers, instructors) • Language: the relationship between the student and the instructor needs to be simple, punctual, and age appropriate for the child • Feedback: internal and external (only he who is in a position to try the technical gesture can benefit from the sensory information and feedback) • External conditions: understanding of assigned tasks (motor) always starting from the simple with the adaptation to the learning level • Initial motor-level: the motor-experience precedent experienced, favor the learning process (not to forget the hereditary factor) • Motivation to learn: they succeed to learn gestures and movements, not only to understand but also if it is motivated and disposed correctly • Understanding of assigned tasks: the student has to be able to understand what has to be done, he needs to be able to do it right and no difficult tasks have to be proposed. This will help to complete the technical development • Role of the instructor: fundamental. In order to render the student self-sufficient and independent
11 SPECIFIC MOTOR CONDUCTS OF THE GAME OF SOCCER • RUN WITH THE BALL • Walk • Guide • Dribble • Fake • HIT THE BALL • Transmit/passing • Juggle • Shoot/throw • Deflect • RECEIVING THE BALL • Trap • Control • Grasp • Intercept • MOVING TO SPACE • Open to space • Mark • Orientation • Create space • POLYVALENT • It is the complex activity relevant to the methodology aspect of the teaching (didactic methods; conduction; teaching styles) The education grasps the opportunity through the movement having as the outcome the achievement of the educative objectives which are the development of different dimension of functions and areas of personality. More methods will be required based on the situations and on the contests. Therefore, inductive and deductive approaches are: free exploration and guidance uncovered for errors and tests. • MULTILATERAL • It is the complex activity relevant to the didactic aspect of teaching (means, contained, organization). It grasps the educative dimension of the movement and at the movement having as the outcome a predictable program for the achievement of the didactic objectives, which are the development of the motor schemes of the motor capacities and the understanding of the sportive motor ability. • Multilateral general: within the early age groups. • Multilateral orientated and situations of understanding: within the older age groups, following the evolution of the students and of their performance.
12 UNDERSTANDING OF THE TECHNICAL PHASE (Meinel) • Development of “beginner” coordination • (task and gesture thru demonstration of the instructor; poor references; optical analyzer more involved; excessive utilization of strength) • Development of “fine” coordination • (adhesive executions to the proposed model, the optical sensorial and the kinetic information improve, awareness of exercises but non-automate, better control of the movement) • Consolidation of the “fine” coordination and the development of the variability availability • (automation of movements, attention towards the best solution of the situation, better control of disruption, anticipation of the evolvement of the play, the technique to resolve the tactical situations). The achievement of the technical gestures, rapidly to resolve the tactic tasks, it has to occur concisely and intelligently: • plastic • adapting • transferable • Such mechanism facilitate • creative development of the student (choose and decide) • technical teaching within the rapidity regime • coordinative capacities improvement, conditional, psychological • The teaching should proceed from the simple, to the normal, to the modified, to the complex. The player should acquire as many experiences as possible to increase his own motor-technical knowledge which will allow him/her to resolve, interpret and foresee with success, thanks to the memory, the problematic and the variability of the situation of play.
13 SUBDIVISION OF THE DIDACTIC ACTIVITY • PICCOLI AMICI (6-8 YEARS OLD) • DEVELOP THE NEEDS AND THE MODALITY OF MOVEMENT UTILIZING THE BALL AS A TOOL • THE ACTIVITY SHOULD FOCUS EXCLUSIVELY ON COORDINATION AND BALANCE OF MOVEMENT • PROCESS TO START SOCIALIZING IN WHICH THE EGOCENTRIC PUSH OF EACH CHILD IS STRONG • PULCINI (8-10 YEARS OLD) • ACTIVITY MORE SPECIFIC • EXCERCISES WITH SPACES SUITABLE TO THE PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH STUDENT • ALLOW EVERYONE TO HAVE NECESSARY COMPETITIVE EXPERIENCES FOR A PSYCHO-MOTOR GROWTH OPPORTUNITY • THE COMPETITION REPRESENTS THE MEASURE OF THEIR OWN KNOWLEDGE AND BY THE TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE POSSESSED • KNOW HOW TO CONNECT WITH TEAMMATES AND OPPONENTS • MAJOR DESIRE OF DIALOG AND COLLABORATION • ESORDIENTI (10-12 YEARS OLD) • THE ACTIVITY ALWAYS EVOLVES MORE TOWARDS TECHNIQUES THAT COME FROM THE AGONISTIC COMPETITION • ENHANCE THE VALUE OF WHO POSSESS GOOD MOTOR POTENTIALITY • GUARANTEE EVERYONE A FAIR TECHNICAL GROWTH • INTERVENE ON THE ATHLETES THAT SHOW SLOW GROWTH (ESPECIALLY WITHIN THE PHYSICAL NATURE) • GIOVANISSIMI (12-14 YEARS OLD) • FULL TECHNICAL-TACTICAL KNOWLEDGE • SPECIFIC PHYSICAL PREPARATION (components neuromuscular and aerobic potentiality) This category is the so-called “pyramid point” where at the base there is the so-called “scuola calcio” project. This age group represents the accomplishment of the objectives and also the quality of the work carried out through out the previous years. • ALLIEVI (14-16 YEARS OLD) • SOCCER MATURITY • SPORTIVE COMPILATION • INDIVIDUALIZED TRAINING • HIGHER APPLICATIONS
14 ANNUAL PERCENTAGE OF THE ACTIVITY BASED ON THE TECHNICAL-TACTICAL-PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
I Piccoli Amici “I and the Ball” General aspects and general periods from 6 to 8 years old
16 ANNUAL DISRTIBUTION OF WORK LOADS • Subdivision within the inside of the parameter: • TACTICAL • Situation 15% • Tactical Game 10% • TECNICHAL • Coordinative 10% • Perceptive 55% • PHYSICAL 10%
17 ANNUAL PROGRAM IN PERCENTAGES General Programming Specific Programming Annual course of the three parameters
DURATION OF THE ACTIVITY From September to May (nine months) WEEKLY ATTENDANCE Two times (Tuesday/Thursday or Wednesday/Friday) PRACTICE SESSION STRUCTURE DURATION: 60-75 MIN. I° PHASE 15’ - Start-warm up phase-one ball for each student II° PHASE 15’-20’ - Situation play with simple games III° PHASE 15’-20’ - Prevalent games, individual commitment on a particular motor conduct IV° PHASE 20’ - Group play SPACE REQUIRED A quarter of the field BALL N°3/4 NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER GROUP 12 – 15 students GAMES There are no official codified FIGC (Italian Youth Soccer Federation) activities expected and/or with regularity.We advise the organization of at least 4-5 meeting with other soccer schools; this initiatives have to encourage the participation of everyone. Each team should be composed of a maximum number of five/six players (games-play 3>3 / 5>5 and 6>6). 18 PROPOSED PROGRAMMING OF LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES
PROBLEM HOW TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM Excessive focus • Alternate plays that require attention in moments of liberty • Give some game related punishment Limited attention span • Don’t propose exercises or games that are too long in duration • Don’t wait until the end of the lesson to let them play 19 PSYCHO-MOTOR PROFILE • UNDERSTANDING THE TASK AND THE “BEGINNING” COORDINATION PHASE • From the preparation phase, to the concrete operation phase • Cognitive development: egocentric thought and sincretico • Centralization phase: limit attention; projection of own self within the environment • Less availability towards others, needs minimum and simple rules PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE AGE
20 POSSIBLE CHARACTERISTICS PRESENT IN THE CHILD • Technical-Tactical-Coordinative Characteristics • synthetic solution of the motor task • prevalent motor-sensory control • poor cognitive capacities • Physical Characteristics • instinctive and irrational movements • OBJECTIVES • With respect to the running • unitary relation rapport to child-ball, general type of motor-sensory differentiation and control • achievement of directional objectives • overcome lines of action with strong numeric superiority • With respect to the shot and receiving the ball • frontal passing and receiving with ball on the ground • With respect to movement • obstruct the opponent that is carrying the ball
KNOW HOW TO • Advance with the ball • Stop the ball • Strike the ball • Move without the ball KNOW AND UNDERSTAND • The objectives of play • Role tied to the phase of the play (offensive phase/forward; defensive phase/defender) SHOULD BE ABLE TO • Respectful of teammates • Respectful of opponent • Respectful of basic rules • Make contact with the ground • Make contact with the opponent 21 I PICCOLI AMICI SHOULD • Propose games that facilitate and necessitate: • Rapid solution of technical problems • Execution of the fundamental technical abilities • Mental elaboration of technical solutions present in the opponent • Technical collaboration in pairs and in game situations • First stimulus towards the construction of the operative open thought (i.e.: game with four goals)
22 DIDACTIC PROGRAMMING
23 DIDACTIC COURSE AND ANNUAL PROGRAMMING
I Pulcini “I and the ball, the teammate and the opponent” General periods and aspects from 8 to 10 years old
25 ANNUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORK LOADS • Subdivision within the inside of the parameter: • TACTICAL • Situational 10% • Tactical game 25% • TECHNICAL • Coordinative 30% • Perceptive 25% • PHYSICAL 10%
26 ANNUAL PROGRAMMING IN PERCENTAGE General Programming Specific Programming Annual course of the three parameters
DURATION OF THE ACTIVITIES From September to May (nine months) WEEKLY ATTENDANCE Three times (Monday/Tuesday and Thursday/Friday) + game PRACTICE SESSION’S STRUCTURE DURATION: 90-100 MIN. I° PHASE 15’ - Warm up phase utilizing the ball II° PHASE 20’-30’ - Technical exercises / Situation play III° PHASE 20’ - Game with theme IV° PHASE 20’ - Free game AVAILABLE SPACE Half field BALL N°4 NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER GROUP 16/18 students ( two goalkeepers) GAMES Friendlies / Tournament - 35/38 total games Reduced field size / goals 4x4 / 2 halves of 20’ Games 7>7 Games 9>9 It is necessary to let every student play 27 PROPOSED PROGRAMMING OF THE ACTIVITIES
28 PSYCHO-MOTOR PROFILE • COORDINATION OF THE “FINE” PHASE • Initial decentralization phase:flexible attention projected to more elements • The analysis of the situation phase starts taking into consideration other reference points to organize personal behavior • Flexibility in reasoning • Comparison to others • Self-respect of own capacities • Collaboration and acceptance of rules • Interest in obtaining good results
PROBLEM HOW TO FACE THE PROBLEM Everyone wants to play forward: not much motivation to play in the defensive position Game in which the defender is increasingly rewarded. Not much collaboration in the play: not able to understand the importance of passing • Even encouraging the personal initiative, slowing the ball as passing instead of carrying it • Situations 2:1 • Simple games with players that play on the wing No trust between teammates, errors are not accepted Everyone has to touch the ball for the goal to be valid. Unilateral vision Psycho-kinetic games to stimulate the perceptive capacities. Passes always short, owed to poor technique, not always because lack of strength Confrontation games, shooting in the goal, shoot with neck of the foot with the objective to exceed an obstacle. Games become chaotic: everyone piles around the ball • Simplify and regulate the situation: throw in with feet, one defender on the ball, simplified games. • Ask questions to favor the analysis, therefore the correct solution to eventual situational problems. 29 AGE RELATED PROBLEMS
30 POTENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS PRESENT IN THE CHILD • Technical-Tactical Coordinative Characteristics • Adaptation to new situations. • Widen space of action. • Development of attention span. • Understanding of own actions and functional ability. • Instructional use of own technical gestures. • Physical Characteristics • Movements more controlled. • Combinations with more elements.
31 OBJECTIVES • Relative to running • restricted space with pressure from the opponent • Relative to the shot and to receiving of the ball • diagonal and head-on passing and receiving from a stopped and moving position • shot with a diagonal, lateral and head-on run • the action successively is projected and inserted (stop to follow the triangular play) • the position of the goalkeeper will begin to be evaluated while shooting • Relative to resting • understanding attack-defense situations • marking and opening function analysis (the answers are more individual then collectively) • Propose games and exercises that facilitate: • Fast solution for technical problems • Execution of the fundamental technical abilities • Involvement of attention in carrying out technical gestures • Execution of technical and mental gestures/actions while facing the opponent • Collaboration with a teammate while facing the opponent • Actions carried out with a teammate while overcoming pressure from the opponent with shot on goal • Fun games that allow for individual resolution of technical/tactical game situations • EXCERCISES:soccer tennis – the minnows - relay - slalom – games with jolly • SITUATION OF PLAY: 1>1 ; 2>1 ; 3>2 ; 4>2; 5>5; 7>7
32 DIDACTIC PROGRAMMING
33 ANNUAL PROGRAMMING
Gli Esordienti “I and the ball, the teammates and the opponents in numeric superiority and inferiority” General periods and aspects from 10 to 12 years of age
35 ANNUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORK LOADS • Subdivision within the inside of the parameter: • TACTICAL • Situational 20% • Game tactics 20% • TECHNICAL • Coordination 15% • Perceptual 30% • PHYSICAL 15%
36 ANNUAL PROGRAM IN PERCENTAGES General Programming Specific Programming Annual course of the three parameters
DURATION OF THE ACTIVITY Last week of August to June (44 weeks) WEEKLY ATTENDANCE Three times per week plus games DURATION OF PRATICE SESSION: 100’ I° PHASE 15’ - Warm-up phase utilizing soccer balls II° PHASE 30’-40’ - Technical exercises – Confrontation play/set course/relays/situations of play III° PHASE 20’ - Games with themes IV° PHASE 25’ - Scrimmage AVAILABLE SPACE Half field BALL N°4 NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER GROUP 16/18 students ( two goalkeepers) GAMES Friendly / Tournament - 35/38 total games Reduced field size / goals 4x4 / 2 halves of 25’ Games 11>11 It is necessary to let everyone play 37 HYPOTHETICAL PROGRAMMING OF THE ACTIVITY
38 PSYCHO-MOTOR PROFILE AND POSSIBLE ASPECTS PRESENT IN THE CHILD • VARIABLE AVAILABLE DISPONBILITY PHASE • Passing from the abstract to the concrete. From a verbal description the child rebuilds the motor action and formulates his own hypothesis. • Development of self-criticism and creativity, a group spirit is born and the internal integration improves, respect towards the instructor. • The inter-personal relationships will also transfer outside the team environment. • Development of team spirit and of group identity. • Technical-Tactical Coordinative Characteristics • Anticipation. • Elaboration of problem situations (attack-defense). • Respond to tactical indication requests. • Precision and attention progressive improvement to the particular of the capacities towards the ability. • Physical Characteristics • Status (and/or decline) and resumption motor possibilities • Guided development of physical capacities and first solicitations quality responses
PROBLEM HOW TO CONFRONT THE PROBLEM Games divided by many substitutions Unless an exceptional case, carry out substitutions only in the breaks The obligation of substitutions remarkably lowers the team momentum. Start only 9 of the hypothetical “starters” The switch from small field to the regular size Use larger dimensions during training so the students get used to making longer passes Introduction of off side rule Work at practice, apply it also within reduced games 39 AGE RELATED PROBLEMS
PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTIONS A poor use of verbal communication is noticed • Personal character • Doesn’t ask questions • Specific exercises with 3 players to develop communication • Motivate the use of verbal communication A poor level of attention is noticed • Instinctive players • Insufficient solicitations • Psychokinetic, psycho- tactic • Theme of play • Pose questions • Motivate the attention Can not keep possession of the ball • Lack of quality touches • Lack of collaboration (not enough movement without the ball) • Action much elaborated • Stimulate the technical growth in particular, ball control and passing • Stimulate the individual initiatives • Utilize simplified games • Stimulate verbal communication • Simplify the model of play 40 GAME RELATED PROBLEMS
41 OBJECTIVES • Relative to running • major action space with the opponent to contrast • situational play in numerical superiority and inferiority • fakes and feints • Relative to shooting • passing to space • heading, volley, acrobatic strike • Relative to receiving • development of intuitive anticipation of trajectories • development of the ability to read the successive actions • Relative to movement • more direction of intervention • more non-verbal communication, movement without the ball • utilize tactical references thru organized attack-defense schemes and actions • first definition of role/position. • Propose games and exercises that facilitates • Fast solution of technical problems and executions of fundamentals; pursuing of quick execution • Mental technical solution elaboration present towards the opponent: passing (3>1) and dribbling (1>1) • Intercept in strong numeric inferiority (1>3) • Play in numeric disadvantage • Individualization of technical-tactical objectives within the exercises carried out in the game model • EXERCISE TYPE: Slalom - summersault – jumping and passing - trigger and stop – relay race – win over the ball • SITUATIONS OF PLAY:3>2 ; 3>3 ; 4>2 ; 4>3 ; 5>5 ; 7>7
42 DIDACTIC PROGRAMMING
43 ANNUAL PROGRAMMINING
I Giovanissimi “Perfectionism and specialization” Periods and aspects from 12 to 14 years of age
45 ANNUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORK LOADS • Subdivision within the inside of the parameter: • TACTICAL • Situational 15% • Tactical Game 25% • TECHNICAL • Coordinative 20% • Perceptive 10% • PHYSICAL 30%
46 ANNUAL PROGRAMMING IN PERCENTAGES General Programming Specific Programming Annual course of the three parameters
DURATION OF THE ACTIVITY From August 15th to June 1st WEEKLY ATTENDANCE Three times per week + the game STRUCTURE OF PRACTICE SESSION DURATION: 100 min. AVAILABLE SPACE Half field BALL N°5 NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN THE GROUP 18/20 students (two/three goalkeepers) GAMES Friendly / Tournament – 40/45 total games Games 11>11 Guarantee the possibility for every student to play 47 HYPHOTETICAL PROGRAMMING OF THE ACTIVITY I° PHASE 15’ - Warm-up phase utilizing a soccer ball II° PHASE 30’-40’ - Technique and application of technical exercises. Situations of play III° PHASE 20’ - Game with tactical theme of play IV° PHASE 25’ - Scrimmage
48 PSYCHO-MOTOR PROFILE • RATIONALITY PHASE • Abstract reasoning capabilities, abilities to formulate hypothesis and reach conclusions • Ability to imagine and organize current situations, drawing on past experiences • Capable of sacrifice • Group spirit reinforces and stabilizes the team integration • Honor exists in the team environment • Personal relationships transfer outside of the team environment • Exhibit rational behavior and precise choices